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DONALD L. COSENS, Worshipful Master 
St. Thomas, Ontario 


752 Hampton Court, Pickering, Ontario L1W 3M3 

(905)831-2076 Fax (905) 831-7815 

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20 Fairview Crescent, Woodstock, Ont. N4S 6L1 

Phone (519) 537-2927 


Subject Page 


Donald L. Cosens, Worshipful Master 161 

Annual Heritage Lodge Banquet Address 

Fact -Fiction - Fantasy: It's Our History! 

By Raymond S. J. Daniels, Whitby 163 

The Little Lodge In The Valley 

By George R. Gale, Port Stanley 179 

A Dance Around Masonic Jurisprudence 

By George F. W. Inrig, Lindsay 193 

Social Influences On Masonry In Ontario 

By P. Raymond Borland, Cambridge 205 

Our Departed Brethren 214-215 

The Heritage Lodge Past Masters 216 

The Heritage Lodge Officers 217 

Committee Chairmen 218 


The contributors to these Proceedings are alone 

responsible for the opinions expressed and also 

for the accuracy of the statements made therein, 

and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of 

The Heritage Lodge A.F. & A.M. No. 730 G.R.C. 

The oral presentation at meetings 
should be restricted to 30 minutes 

Papers presented to the Lodge are printed in 
The Heritage Lodge Proceedings annually in November 



It is a great honour and delight to be your Worshipful Master in this, 
the first year of a new millennium. 

We started our year ofiF in Whitby, witli the Annual Banquet in 
January. Ray Daniels spoke to us on the writing of our history. Everyone 
has their own view of the past with tlieir accumulated Facts - Fiction - 

I was most pleased to be instrumental in inviting The Heritage Lodge 
to Port Stanley in March. St. Mark's No. 94 is one of my Lodges by 
affiliation. George R. Gale Sr. gave the visitors an overview of the 150 
years of St. Mark's Lodge. The review by Steve Peters was also 
interesting and gave everyone a good appreciation of our Little Lodge in 
the Valley. 

Travelling to Lindsay in May we were greeted by the brethren of 
Faitliful Bretliren Lodge No.77. George F. Inrig's talk,^ Dance Around 
Masonic Jurisprudence, gave us a better understanding of the Laws of 

In September the Lodge was back in tlie newly renovated Preston- 
Hespeler Masonic Temple. Our Immediate Past Master Ray Borland sat 
in the East, because I was flat on my back in hospital. Ray did double 
duty as the speaker. Our original presenter was out of tlie country, unable 
to complete his speech or present it as well. Ray told the bretliren about 
tlie Social Influences on Masonry In Ontario. 

A highlight of my year as Worshipful Master was at Grand Lodge in 
July at the Institution and Installation of Officers of Millennium Lodge. 
As your Worshipful Master I was given the honour of speaking to all 
present in congratulating the Officers of the Lodge. Millennium Lodge 
was supported by The Heritage Lodge by using our Collars and Aprons. 

Lastly I wish to thank the brethren of The Heritage Lodge and 
elsewhere for their support in the Lodge and in my recent time in 
hospital. The Lodge did not miss a beat and now that I am back on track 
I can enjoy our Lodge's efforts in tlie future. 

Donald L. Cosens W.M. 




Worshipful Master - 2000 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730 G.R.C. 

Initiated St. David's Lodge No. 302 G.R.C 1956 

Worshipful Master St. David's Lodge No. 302 G.R.C 1964 

Affiliated St. Mark's Lodge No. 94 G.R.C 1987 

Worshipful Master St. Mark's Lodge No. 94 G.R.C 1988 

District Deputy Grand Master, St. Thomas District 1998 

Honourary 33° Member of Lodge of Perfection 
Rose Croix, Consistory 

Member R.A.M.. 
Member A.A.O.N.M.S 



by W.Bro. Raymond S. J, Daniels 

Fifteenth Annual Heritage Lodge Banquet 

Monday, January 31 , 2000 

Heydenshore Pavilion, Whitby 

All the ancient histories^ as one of our yvits has said, 
are but fables that have been agreed upon, - Voltaire 


What time is it? 

A simple but ubiquitous question, one we ask ourselves or enquire 
of otliers countless times every day. The civilized Western world runs on 
time, and our lives are governed by it. For some, time drags; for most, 
time flies - that is the illusion; for all, time passes — that is the reality. 

We are all, every last man on earth, forced to live on a fixed income 

finely calculated in hours, minutes, and seconds. Waking or sleeping, life 

ticks away at tlie steady, unvarying rate of 24 hours, 1,440 minutes, 

86,000 seconds each and every day, ours to invest as we please. We often 

talk foolishly about saving time, as if it were a commodity that could be 

banked and kept in reserve, to be witlidrawn later when needed. 

LOST, yesterday, somewhere between Sunrise and 

Sunset two golden hours, each set with sixty diamond 

minutes. NO REWARD is offered, for they are gone 

forever. Thomas Mann (1875-1955) 

No, alas, time can only be spent — either expended wisely and 
consumed efficiently, or foolishly wasted and tlioughtlessly squandered. 
Wey?// time— put in time — kill time — hopefiilly none of us will ever have 
to serve time for it! Benjamin Franklin once posed the rhetorical 
question. Dost thou love life? and responded: Then do not squander time; 
for that's the stuff life is made of John Rutherford puts it directly: Time 
is at once the most valuable and the most perishable of all our 



What time is it? 

It is an important question to those quantitative analysts in the Lodge 
who judge these banquet speeches, not by what, is said, but by how long 
it takes the speaker to say it. One wit has observed that Time is an 
illusion — to orators. ' 

We have all been conditioned to be clock-watchers. Clock towers 
crown municipal buildings in cities, towns and villages across tlie land. 
The Houses of Parliament in Westminster and the Parliament Buildings 
in Ottawa, seats of national government and supreme legislative 
authority, are surmounted by towering timepieces, enduring reminders 
that even the power of government is temporal; even kings and prime 
ministers are subject to tlie higher rule of Fatlier Time. 
What time is it? 

We measure time with a passion for precision that borders on the 
obsessive.^ Thus, Time becomes a symbol for accuracy and exactitude 
and Punctuality is promoted as a Virtue^ When Queen Victoria presented 
a watch to her grandson, little Prince George (subsequently George V) on 
liis 8tli birtliday, she expressed tlie hope that it will serve to remind you 
to be very punctual and very exact in all your duties.^ 

Freemasons, who revel in the art of symbolism, may discern the 
Geometry of Time. Ancient cultures perceived tlie world as a series of 
repeating cycles having neither beginning nor end, and understood time 
as a daily or yearly circle. 

In the Western Judaeo-Christian world, time is a line along which 
liistory marches steadily from the past tlirough the present to the future, 
wliich we bravely call progress toward perfection.^ 

Our two common timepieces — the clock and the calendar are cast in 
tlie form of circle time and square time. 

Clock time, while it indicates only the present moment — the here 
and now — chases itself; the ever-turning hands — or digits revolving in 
a perpetual motion witliout beginning or ending — tlie Great Wheel of 
Eternit}' -predictable, repeatable, tlierefore infinite. 

Calendar time, consists of small boxes, little pigeonlioles, that 
contain everything that happens in a day but no more — compartments for 
past, present, and future — hence finite. 

In his recent study entitled Calendar, David Ewing Duncan makes 
the point vividly. We are, in his words, a people of the calendar and it 
is our blessing and our curse to count the days and weeks and years — 
to capture them all in a grid of small squares that spread out like a net 
cast over time: thousands of little squares for each lifetime . . . In an 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's Our History! 

ordered world, time matters. Calendars frame how most people live, 
work and worship . . . when the little boxes run out death occurs.^ 
Time, like an ever-rolling stream, Bears all 
its sons away Isaac Watts ( 1 674- 1 748) 

Yesterday — Today — Tomorrow are the identiiying labels we apply 
to tliose little boxes of life; the detailed catalogue of their contents we call 
HISTORY. As Shakespeare informs us, There is a history in all men's 
lives. Figuring the natures of the times deceased. ^ 

Time passes. We recognize the passage of time because the present 
differs from the past, and based on this observation, we expect the future 
will be different yet again. To tlie romantic spirit, tlie past is exciting for 
the very reason tliat it is different. History identifies and makes notes of 
those differences. 
Clocks measure time - Calendars mark time - History records time 

Musing on these matters brings me to the central point of tliis 
discourse, because, in reality . . . Time and History are one. 

History unfolds in Time. 

History traces the trajectory of the arrow of Time. 

History may be read in the stratified layers of Time. 
History puts human flesh on the bones of Time, 

The Historian attempts to resurrect the past by the pumping of blood 
into the arteries of long-dead people and to make their voices and pleas 
suddenly audible to their inquiring descendants.^ In History, human 
beings study otlier human beings. Thus, by studying History, humanity 
studies itself. 


A mighty drama, enacted upon the theatre of time, 
with suns for lamps and eternity for a background. 

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881 ) 
Somewhat more than five millennia ago, a human hand first carved 
a written word, and so initiated history, mankind's recorded story. ^ 
Archaeologists, those specialist historians who carefully dig up the past 
and painstakingly sift through the sands of time, provide tangible 
evidence that writing was invented in Summer about 3200 BCE.. Thus, 
in a single stroke, personal memories of once upon a time" were replaced 
by written records, oral tradition was superseded by documented evidence 
from which the Historian — be he professional or amateur, academic or 
armchair — investigates, collects, deciphers, assesses, records and inter- 
prets facts about people and events, institutions and societies, nations and 



History, in its broadest sense, encompasses tlie totality of all past 
events, or more strictly speaking, the known past. The catalogue itemized 
by Francis Bacon (1561-1626) suggests the wide range of historical 
resources on which the Historian depends: Out of monuments, names, 
words proverbs traditions private records and evidences, fragments of 
stories, passages of books, and the like, we do save and recover 
somewhat from the deluge of time. 
So, what is History? 

Quot homines, tot sententiae — As many men, so many opinions. 
Historians know, historians have always known, that we can only see the 
past through a glass darkly. '° 

Historians appear to be engaged in a serious game of academic 
Scrabble selecting small pieces of evidence like tlie lettered tiles, and by 
their ingenuity and imagination, sometimes even bluff, arrange them to 
fonn words. As Robert Zwicker has rather caustically observed. History 
is what the historian thinks the past was. 

Chance is a large and influential factor in tlie game of liistory. 
Arcliives contain only tliose documents tliat have survived, where many 
have been lost by accident or destroyed on purpose. (How many of our old 
Lodges have lost tlieir early Minute Books in fires?) The historian must 
attempt to create a coherent account out of the evidential fragments that 
remain. When pieces of the picture are missing, the honest historian 
admittedly uses imagination to fill in tlie gap, and, following the 
contours, speculates on probabilities, and conjectures, based on educated 
guesses, on what might have been. 

But men may construe things after their fashion, 
Clean from the purpose of the things themselves. 
Shakespeare — Julius Caesar, Act II, Scene III 
The respected English historian, A. J. P. Taylor (1906-1990) freely 
admits that. History is not another name for the past as many people 
imply. It is the name for stories about the past. Some liistoriographers 
maintain that there is no real difference between history and fiction ... 
researching and writing a history book is much the same as researching 
and writing a novel. In tliis sense, it may be argued that The historian 
becomes an author like any other fabulist. The boundaries between 
history and fiction dissolve.^^ 

History would be a wonderful thing — if only it were true. 

Leo Tolstoy . 
Furtliermore, Professor David Lowenthal warns us tliat the past has 
become a foreign and exotic place where people did things differently. 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's Our History! 

And despite advances in science and scholarship that tell us more than 
ever about former times, ihe past frustrates understanding: its events 
seem unfathomable, its denizens inscrutable. However much we know 
ABOUT the past, we can never really know HO IV it yvas for those who 
lived back then. '^ Of only one thing we may be certain, The Goode Olde 
Days were, for tliose who lived in them, like all ages, the best of times 
and the worst of times. 

Fact: evidence; Fiction: interpretation; Fantasy: speculation the 
probability of what if? and the possibility of maybe if? It's all HISTORY! 

We ought to bear this firmly in mind and adopt a critical and 
questioning attitude, wliile always keeping an open mind, when we wade 
tlirough tlie tidal wave of books purporting to reveal tlie origins of 
Freemasonry that have flooded the market in recent years. Much there is 
to justify Leo Tolstoy's wisecrack History is fiction with the truth lefi out. 
Yes, a certain type of historian (if that is what we should call him) has 
built fanciful histories in which conjecture is piled upon conjecture. '^ It 
is not enough to summarily dismiss the current best-sellers as worthless 
and fit only to be read by uneducated idiots. ^^ Oui brethren are reading 
tliese flights of fancy, in some instances, believing naively what tliey 
read, and it is our fraternal duty to be aware, informed and considerate 
as we guide and direct our fellow students to explore more reliable and 
autlioritative sources. 

To bring tlie practice of History unto the floor of Uie Lodge, and 
explain the art of the Historian in familiar terms for oiu* better 
understanding, Richard J. Evans, Professor of Modem History at tlie 
University of Cambridge, draws this illuminating analogy: We start with 
a rough-hewn block of stone, and chisel away at it until we have a statue. 
The statue was not waiting there to be discovered, we made it ourselves, 
and it would have been perfectly possible to have made a different statue 
from the one we finally created. On the other hand, we are constrained 
not only by the size and shape of the original stone, but also by the kind 
of stone it is; an incompetent sculptor not only runs the risk of producing 
an unconvincing statue that does not much resemble anything, but also 
of hammering or chiseling too hard, or the wrong way, and shattering 
the stone altogether. '' 


. . . the Craft in general, and the Lodge in particular 

. . . Ancient as having existed from time immemorial 

If history be no ancient fable 

Freemasons came from the Tower of Babel. '^ 



FREEMASONS, n. An order with secret rites, grotesque cere- 
monies and fantastic costumes, which, originating in the reign of Charles 
II, among working artists of London, has been joined successively by the 
dead of past centuries in unbroken retrogression until now it embraces 
all the generations of man on the hither side of Adam and is drumming 
up distinguished recruits among the pre-creational inhabitants of Chaos 
and the Formless Void. The Order was founded at different times by 
Charlemange, Julius Caesar, Cyrus, Solomon, Zoroaster, Confucius, 
Thotmes, and Buddha. Its emblems and symbols have been found in the 
Catacombs of Paris and Rome, on the stones of the Parthenon and the 
Chinese Great Wall, among the temples ofKarnak and Palmyra and in 
the Egyptian Pyramids - always by a Freemason. '^ 

Tliis overtly cynical but witty definition was penned by tlie American 
iconoclast Ambrose Bierce (1842-C.1914). Before eyebrows are raised, 
however, we must acknowledge that the first official Masonic History 
compiled by the Rev. Dr. James Anderson, sanctioned by Grand Lodge 
and printed with the Constitutions for half a century between 1732 and 
1784, is no less fantastic in its claims. Dr. Anderson's history begins with 
Adam, our first parent and recounts a legendary liistory of the 
stonemason's craft down to the formation of the Premier Grand Lodge in 
1717. Like tlie chapters of endless begats in Biblical genealogies, the 
good cleric was keen to prove the ancient and unbroken lineage of the 

Writing in the first century of the Common Era, Flavius Josephus 
(37/38-101) began liis Jewish Antiquities by honestly admitting, Those 
who write histories are prompted by various motives. '^ So, it would seem, 
Anderson was motivated; intent on establisliing its respectability. 
However well-intentioned, does the end justify tlie means? Robert Freke 
Gould did not think so: He (Anderson) often substituted creation for 
correction, and gave us what he conceived a copyist of the Manuscript 
Constitutions should have written, rather than what he did write. '^ The 
present appraisal of Anderson's work is articulated by John Hamill; 
Anderson, Hamill explains, was not writing a history as we would term 
it today but producing an apologia to give a relatively new institution an 
honourable descent. apologia constricted from legend, folklore, 
and tradition. ... to prove the ancient and unbroken lineage of the 

Legend, folklore, and tradition perhaps . . . but History? 

Historiographers identify two main approaches to Masonic histories, 
and conveniently classify Masonic Historians in two schools: 

First, the authentic or scientific in which theory is built upon or 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's Our History! 

developed out of verifiable facts and documentation. To be enrolled in 
tliis scliool, tliree prerequisites set by Froude must be met: The historical 
inquirer sees with the eye of reason, . . is impartial, ... demands evidence 
such as would satisfy a British jury in a criminal case}^ 

Secondly, the non-authentic in which attempts are made to place 
Freemasonry in the context of the Mystery traditions by a correlation of 
the teachings, allegory, and symbolism of the Craft with those of the 
various esoteric traditions often displaying an apparent inability to 
distinguish between historical fact and legend}^ 

An amusing example by an early writer of the latter class, also 
known as the creationist or conjectural school, may provide the best 
illustration. This short excerpt quoted by Gould was written in 1766 by 
John Cleland ( 1 709- 1 789), the infamous English author better known for 
Ills pornographic novel Fanny Hill than for his writings on Freemasonry: 

Considering that the MA Y (May-pole) was eminently the great sign 
ofDruidism, as the Cross was of Christianity, is there anything forced or 
far-fetched in the conjecture that the adherents to Druidism should take 
the name of MEN OF THE MAY or MA Y-SONS? 

To express an opinion tliat such etymological nonsense is forced or 
far-fetched most of us would consider flagrant understatement! At least 
tlie writer admits to conjecture\ Reflecting on tiie first century of 
Masonic liistory writing, Gould grumbled witli justification Many 
volumes of enthusiastic rubbish, and a few — a very few — essays of 
considerable though transitory interest have been written on what can, 
at most, be only described as the conjectural history of Masonry before 
the era of Grand Lodges?^ 

If tiiere was cause for concern in the nineteenth century, wliat would 
Gould and company tliink of flie best-selling authors of our day who 
confiise fiction and fact? Was Jesus Christ really a Freemason, initiated 
into the Craft while in Egypt?^^ The present spate of investigative 
journalists pretending to be historians, among whom our English 
brethren Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas have attracted the most 
attention, however far-fetched Uieir hypotheses or way-out tlieir 
speculative conclusions appear to be, are not without predecessors among 
tlie conjectural Masonic Historians of earlier generations." Tliis subject 
was more fiilly explored when some of you attended the Workshop given 
last July in conjunction with the meeting of Grand Lodge. ^^ 

Even Robert Freke Gould ( 1 836- 1 9 1 5), admired as the founder of the 
authentic school of Masonic research, quotes William Henry Upton, who 
confesses tliat We are not professing to write history, but to state 
possibilities or probabilities not entirely unsupported by shreds of 



evidence}^ Will any connection between The Knights Templar, our 
ancestors, the Crusaders and Freemasonry, first suggested by the 
Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay (1668-1743) more than 250 years 
ago, and never forgotten since, ever be proved beyond reasonable doubt? 
What really lies buried in tlie crypt of Rosslyn Chapel, silently guarded 
by the knights of the Holy Light coffined in their armour? Thomas Hardy 
reminds us tliat, Though a good deal is too strange to be believed, 
nothing is too strange to have happened. 

What do we really mean when we state that. The usages and customs 
of Masons have ever corresponded with those of the Egyptian 
philosophers? It is most important that we as Freemasons understand tlie 
diJQFerence between mythology and actuality, and be ready and able to 
make a clear distinction between legend and chronicle. Eric Hobsbawn, 
tlie distinguished British Historian, professes tliis credo: The point from 
which historians must start, however far from it they may end, is the 
fundamental and, for them, absolutely central distinction between 
establishable fact and fiction, between historical statements based on 
evidence and subject to evidence and those which are not}^ As 
thoughtful or Speculative Masons, we continue to ask Whence Come We? 

The origin of Freemasonry, and tlie evolution of tlie gentle Craft 
from time immemorial to tlie present day, has dominated academic 
discussion and consumed tlie oil and candles of many historians botli 
within and without tlie Lodge for well nigh tliree centuries since the 
lodges in England first went public in 1717. The conclusion reached by 
the American historian, Jolm J. Robinson, in Born in Blood cannot be 
contested: The one aspect of Freemasonry that is not supposed to be a 
mystery turns out to be the biggest mystery of all, and that is how 
Freemasonry came to be, and why?^^ Brand, in his Popular Antiquities 
published in 1849, had expressed the same frustration: We must despair 
of ever being able to reach the fountain-head of streams which have been 
running and increasing from the beginning of time. All that we can 
aspire to do is only to trace their course backward as far as possible, on 
these charts that now remain of the distant countries whence they were 
first perceived to flow. 

Students of Masonic History have quite literally been in search of 
that which was lost, and tliey have not been successftil in tlieir 
researches. Simply stated. The precise origins of Freemasonry are 
unknown, and may perhaps remain so.^ 

Once again I remind you of the title I announced at the outset: Fact 
—Fiction—Fantasy— It's All History. There is yet another important 
aspect for us to consider. 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's Our History! 

Legend and Traditional History play a major part in our Rites and 
Ceremonies Some Brethren, misunderstanding the distinction, like those 
insistent literalists and dogmatic fundamentalists in religion, who, 
confusing the letter and the spirit, debate certain structural details of 
Solomon's Temple, or question the fate of its Chief Arcliitect because 
they are unrecorded in scripture. The lessons of Freemasonry are 
conveyed in allegories. Our right-wing Cliristian critics should remember 
that the man who many consider to be the greatest Teacher of All Ages, 
also taught in parables. 

Myth, legend, allegory, fable and parable all have their deserved and 
honoured place in tlie canon. Origen, the great biblical scholar and 
Cliristian theologian, writing in the second century, identified tliree 
levels of meaning in the biblical text: the literal sense, the moral sense, 
and the allegorical sense. ^' The same three interpretations could be 
applied in tlie understanding of Masonic ritual and tlie reading of 
Masonic history. 

We need only to make mention of The Legend of Hiram Abif, central 
in tlie Traditional History of Freemasonry, to realize tlie validity of the 
argument proposed in an essay by the eminent Victorian historian James 
Antliony Froude (1818-1894) in which he contended tliat There are two 
kinds of truth: there is the general truth, the truth of the idea, which 
forms the truth of poetry; there is the literal truth of fact, which is the 
truth of science and history . . . In believing eras . . . Legends shape 
themselves into poetry, and aspirations after beauty and goodness bloom 
out into art and religion. Scientific eras bring us back to reality, and 
careful knowledge of facts; but skepticism is fatal to the enthusiasm 
which produces saints and poets, and heroes. There would have been no 
Iliad in an age which inquired into the real existence of Priam or 
Achilles.^^ Freemasonry is both an art and a science; the history of 
Freemasonry exhibits botli kinds of truth in fact and legend. 

Whence Come We? Let me summarize and conclude the argument 
in tlie eloquent language of M.W.Bro. John Hamilton Graham, first 
Grand Master of tlie Grand Lodge of Quebec, 

Mystic messengers of light and truth, of every age and race and 
tongue, sped to the regenerating sons of light, from India and all the 
Orient; from Chaldea and the land of the Nile; from Judea and Tyria; 
from Grecia and Italia; from Germania, Celtica and all the Occident; 
with one accord sped thither, laden with their choicest offerings; and 
with unmingled Joy and gladness, placed them upon the altar of 



Such, my brethren is our inheritance, the ancient hneage and proud 
heritage of modem Freemasonry. 

What's Past is Prologue 

To History has been assigned the office of judging the past, of 
investigating the present for the benefit of future ages. Leopold von 
Ranke (1795-1886), the fatlier of tlie modem objective liistorical school. 
Ancient Freemasonry in the Modem Age 

Life must be lived forwards - but can only be understood 
backwards. Kierkegaard (1813-1855) Danish philosopher 

Her Majesty the Queen, in a recent Christmas message to tlie 
Commonwealth, quoted her first Prime Minister, Winston Churchill: the 
further backward you look, the further forward you can see. The Queen 
continued by stressing the importance of bringing the lessons of the past 
to bear on the aspirations for a better future draw from our history 
those constant and unchanging values which have stood the test of time 
and experience describing them as timeless values.^ 

At tlie threshold of this New Year, like Janus, the Roman god of 
doorways, who, wliile standing in the present, looks both forward and 
backward at the same time, we can leam from where we have been while 
keeping our vision forward on where we are going. 

Witence come you? - Whither are you directing your course? 

These are familiar questions to every Mason. Thomas Caliill reminds 
us that The past is no longer important just because it can be mined for 
exemplars but because it has brought us to the present: it is the first part 
of our journey, the journey of our ancestors.^^ 

As our Grand Lodge prepares to commemorate tlie 150*** anniversary 
of institution in 2005, we have much to celebrate and I cause to sing with 
the psalmist of old. The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places; yea, 
I have a goodly heritage. 

Harry LeRoy Haywood (1886-1956) outlined tlie real purpose of all 
Masonic Education when he wrote: The study of Freemasonry is a study 
of men and of the Freemasonic things which those men have done and 
are doing. Masonic History is a report of what they did; a study of 
Freemasonry is what they are doing.^^ 

The illustiious dead — William Mercer Wilson, John Ross 
Robertson, William James Dunlop — wrote our Masonic History the result 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: Ifs Our History! 

of excellent men willing themselves in desired directions. Freemasonry 
is our responsibility — the Grand Master, the Worsliipfiil Master, every 
Brother Mason. 

Great men are the inspired texts of that divine Book of 

Revelations, whereof a chapter is completed from epoch to 

epoch, and by some named HISTORY. Thomas Carlyle 

It is unnecessary, inappropriate, even patently presumptuous for me 

to lecture the members of tliis lodge, which exists primarily To maintain, 

uphold and preserve the historical events that formed the foundation of 

Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masonry — in short, our goodly heritage — 

on the importance of History to the Craft. ^^ But even we in The Heritage 

Lodge, uniquely dedicated to Masonic study and research, might profit 

from the occasional reinforcement and reminder to stiffen our resolve. 

Professor David Lowenthal maintains. Heritage aims to convert 

historical residues into witnesses that attest our own ancestral virtues.^ 

This mission statement read in the Masonic context encapsulates the 

whole reason for and purpose of our being as a specially warranted 



Lest we forget, it was a Charter Member and the first Tyler of The 
Heritage Lodge, (incidentally, a Past Master of my lodge in Cambridge), 
R.W.Bro. William S. McVittie, who introduced the concept of tlie 
optional office of Lodge Historian, and nurtured its progress at every 
opportunity until it was adopted and authorized in tlie revision of tlie 
Constitution. January 1, 1980.^^ 

The jewel with which the Lodge Historian is invested is the Scroll 
surmounted by a Torch. The symbolism of the Scroll is obvious. The 
Torch, which closely resembles the emblem of the Olympic Games, 
symbolizes continuity. Just as the runner carries the Olympic flame, so 
the Lodge Historian carries tlie record from the past to the fiiture, or in 
tlie words of tlie Ritual: so that the Brethren of the future may know and 
appreciate the past. McVittie was a keen sportsman; in liis youtli a 
varsity athlete, and in maturity, a coach of school teams. 

Passing mention might be made of that curious phrase, your 
diligence and discrimination in faithfully recording and reporting the 
events of the lodge. Diligence, yes, but what is meant by discrimination? 
The word is probably derived from an admonition found in Gould's, 
History of Freemasonry (1883), cautioning the Historian: in proportion 
as he admits all evidence indiscriminately, he must exercise 



discrimination in Judging its effect. — We all pull out of the seamless web 
of past events a tiny selection which we then present in our historical 

At the Annual Communication in the same year marking the 125*** 
Anniversary of tlie formation of the Grand Lodge of Canada, the Grand 
Master, M. W. Bro. N. Richard Richards, reconmiended the appointment 
of R. W.Bro. Professor Wallace McLeod, Grand Lodge Historian an office 
to which tliis distinguished Brotlier and world-renowned Masonic scholar 
has been re-appointed for two decades/' 


Wimt then is the use of History? and what are its lessons? If it can 
tell us little of the past and nothing of the future why waste our time over 
so barren a study?^^ These questions were asked by one whose life work 
was devoted to the study of History. 

More to the point, we might ask: Of what use is History to 
Freemasonry? . . . and perhaps of even greater import . . . What are its 
lessons for Freemasons? 

In the first place, as we have seen. History explores and explains 
pasts grown ever more opaque over time; Heritage clarifies pasts so as 
to infuse them with present purposes. T^ 

Yes, even Masonic banquet speeches may contain something for us 
to moralize on! And so I conclude with a moral! Froude defined History 
in terms that should ring true in every Mason's heart: // is a voice for 
ever sounding across the centuries the laws of right and wrong. Opinions 
alter; manners change, creeds rise and fall, but the moral law is written 
on the tablets of eternity.^ Timeless values, indeed! We usually recite 
them as the tenets and fundamental principles of Ancient Freemasonry. 

Henry Ford (1863-1947) asked, Wliat do we care what they did 500 
or 1, 000 years ago? His opinion was stated with characteristic bluntness 
and our brotlier frankly expressed a view perhaps shared by some of you 
in tlie audience tonight: He blustered . . . History is more or less bunk. 
It 's tradition. We don't want tradition. We want to live in the present and 
the only history that is worth a tinker's dam (sic) is the history we make 
today. * 

But Thomas Caliill gives persuasive answer: History . . . is always 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's Our History! 

something new: a process unfolding through time, whose direction and 
end we cannot know . . . it is the collective responsibility of those who 
are bringing about the future by their actions in the present . . . the 
concept of the future holds out promise. ^^ 

Who — where — how — why? 

Two years ago M.W.Bro. Richard Fletcher, Past Grand Master of 
Vermont and Executive Director of the Masonic Service Association of 
North America, addressing this assembly, stated Freemasonry ... does 
not need defending, but it does need explaining. He insisted that the most 
important contribution we can make to Freemasonry is to become well 
informed about our Fraternity. ^ 

Knowledge is power, because the pen of the historian does prove 
mightier than tlie sword. The peccadilloes of the mason-bashers are 
easily deflected when we are armed with learning and equipped with 
understanding. The study of History equips us to be pro-active in tlie 
Cause of Good. 

Every schoolboy knows tliat in 1492 Columbus sailed tlie ocean blue. 
That's History! Does every Mason know what happened on June 24, 1 717 
in London, England? That's our History! 

Does every member of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario know what happened on October 10 1855, in Hamilton? . . . 
and why? 

Every American Mason knows that the first President, George 
Washington was a proud and active member of the Craft. How many 
Canadian Masons know that Sir John A. Macdonald foremost among the 
Fathers of Confederation and first Prime Minister, was a Freemason? 
How many have seen liis regalia displayed in Ancient St. Jolm's No. 3, 
Kingston, his Motlier Lodge. Macdonald was Initiated there, March 14, 
1844 and Raised June 27, 1844.^^ The rank of Past Grand Senior Warden 
was conferred on liim in 1868?^ 

In the much-publicized insightfiil analysis and scathing indictment 
of the teaching and teachers of Canadian history, published under the 
title Who Killed Canadian History? Professor J. L. Granatstein issues tliis 
warning and sounds a clarion call to arms: 

History is important, I believe, because it is the way a nation, a 
people, and an individual learn who they are, where they came from, and 
how and why their world has turned out the way it has. We do not simply 
exist in a contemporary world. We have a past, if only we would try to 
grapple with it. History teaches us a sense of change over time. History 
is memory, inspiration, and commonality - and a nation without memory 



is every bit as adrift as an amnesiac wandering the streets. History 
matters, andweft)rget that truth at our peri l.^^ 

Every Mason in every Lodge should know WHAT we stand for as 
Freemasons, and be able to state clearly WHY: To formulate his personal 
answer to the question. What is Freemasonry? ... but of much greater 
importance, to know Wty I am a Freemason. It is my belief that by a 
diligent study of our Masonic story, a careful reading of the lives of those 
brethren tliat precede us in tlie long procession through time. History can 
and will assist us. 

We, in the present moment, are at the very centre of tlie vast circle 
of Time, equidistant from the past and future on its circumference. The 
arrow of Time flies ever forward into the future. Bro. Oscar Wilde 
(1854-1900), combining wit and wisdom, said The one duty we owe to 
history is to rewrite it. 

Tliink about it! How will we rewrite liistory? At the conclusion of 
The General Charge, that inspired composition of M. W.Bro. Otto Klotz, 
and unique to Canadian ritual, the final words are . . . ft-om generation 
to generation. We are all quick to respond with the great Amen of 
Masonry: So Mote It Be! The study of our Masonic story unfolding from 
generation to generation — our History, our past — through precept and 
example, perpetually teaches us, often impels us, and hopefUlly inspires 
us to ask: 

What mote it be? 

The future of Freemasonry . . . 

Our futurel 


Acknowledgment . . . 

"If you steal from one author, its plagiarism; if you steal from 
many it 's research" Wilson Mizner 

1. Kin Hubbard 

2. Lemonick, Michael D.. The Riddle of Time. TIME Magazine, Dec. 27, 1999. 

3. At liis hivestiture, tlie Junior Warden is reminded tliat "regular and punctual attendance is 
particularly desirable." 

4. Judd, Denis. The Life and Times of George V. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson Luiiited, 
1973. pp.22 -23 

5. Tlie Old Testament - Genesis 1 : 1 "In the beginning God... " The New Testament - John 1:1: 
'7/1 the beginning was the Word" 


FACT - FICTION - FANTASY: It's OurHistoryl 

6. Duncan, David Ewing. Calendar: Humanity's Epic Struggle to Determine a True and 
Accurate Year. New York: Avon Books, Inc., 1998. pp. xiv-xv, 76. 

7. King Henry IV, Part II 

8. Corrin, Michael. National Post Review of Thomas Cahill, Desire of tlie Everlasting Hills, 
December 24, 1999. 

9. Cahill, Tliomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way 
Everyone Thinks and Feels. The Hinges of History, Vol. II. New York: Nan A, Talise, 
Doubleday, 1998. p.l 1. 

10. Evans, Richard J. In Defence of History. London: Granla Books, 1997, p. 104. 

11. Evans, pp. 102.-103. 

12. Lx)wenthal, David. The Heritage Crusade andtlie Spoils of History. Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1998. Preface, p. xiv. 

13. Richards, E. G. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History. Oxford: Oxford University 
Press, 1998. Introduction, p. xix. 

14. Re: Book: The Hiram Key posted on the Internet by Michel L. Brodsky, Belgique, 
December 31, 1999. Bro. Brodsky is a Member of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, WM 
1994. "This book has absolutely no historical value. The thesis presented (sic) are worthless 
and no serious historian dares to read it as he may get very ill from laughing at every page. It 
is really a pity that trees have been felled to print it," 

15. Evans, p. 147. 

16. Quoted in Davies, Norman. Europe : A History. London: Pimlico, Random House UK 
Limited, 1997. Mason, p.633. 

17. Bierce, Ambrose. The Devil's Dictionary (1911) Ware, Herts.: Wordsworth Editions 
Limited, 1996. p.95. 

18. Josephus, Flavius (37-100 CE). Jewish Antiquities, translated, Paul L. Maier. Grand 
Rapids, Michigan: Kregil Publications Inc., 1988. 

19. Gould, Robert Freke. Collected Essays & Papers Relatingto Freemasonry. Belfast: William 
Tait, 1913. Notes on Historical Freemasonry, 1906. p.273. 

20. Hamill, Jolin. The History ofEnglish Freemasonry. Addlestone, Surrey: Lewis Masonic, Ian 
Allan Regalia Ltd., 1 994. pp. 19-2 1 . (Bro. Hamill is Librarian and Curator of the United Grand 
Lodge of England.) 

2 1 . Froude, James Anthony. Short Studies on Great Subjects. Vol. V. London: Longmans Green 
and Co., 1907. Essay - Origen and Celsus. 

22. Hamill. Tlie History ofEnglish Freemasonry, p. 19. 

23. Gould. Collected Essays & Papers Relating to Freemasonry. Notes on Historical 
Freemasonry, 1906. Our SymboHcal Traditions, p.270. 

24. Wilson, Robert Anton. Everytliing is Under Control: Conspiracies, Cults and Cover-ups. 
New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc., 1998, Jesus as a Freemason, p.262. 

25. Knight, Christopher, and Lomas, Robert. 

The Hiram Key: Pharaolis, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus, 1996. 
The Second Messiah: Templars, the Turin Shroud and the Great Secret of Freemasonry, 1997. 
Uriel's Machine: The Prehistoric Technology that Survived the Flood, 1999. 
Serious students of Masonic history might read these and other speculative re-historians ever 
bearing in mind the cautionary advice ofifered by Leonard SchJain (The Alphabet and the 
Goddess, 1998): "to consider which of the hypothetical explanations of historical events is the 
most plausible." . . and to try the evidence in "the court of competitive plausibility." 

26. Have YOU found "Tlie HIRAM Key"? - It's in the Book! Grand Lodge Seminars and 
Workshops, Royal York Hotel, Toronto, July 20, 1999 

Freemasonry - Cliristianity - Kni^ts Templar - The Holy Grail. 



27. Gould. Collected Essays & Papers Relating to Freemasonry. Notes on Historical 
Freemasonry, 1906. 

28. Hobsbawm, Eric. On History. London: Abacus, Little, Brown and Company (UK),1998. 
Preface - telling the truth about history, p. viii. 

29. Robinson, John J. Bom in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. New Yoric: M. Evans 
and Co., 1988. p. 188. 

30. Hamill, John and Gilbert, Robert. Freemasonry: A Celebration of the Craft. St. Albans: 
Mackenzie Publishing, 1992. Origins, p. 13. 

31. The History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing Company, 1990. Everett Ferguson: 

32. Froude, James Anthony. Short Studies on Great Subjects, Vol. V. Essay - Origen and 
Ceisus, p. 274. 

33. Stillson and Hughan, ed. History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and 
Accepted Masons. Boston: The Fraternity Publishing Company, 1 909. James Hamilton Graham 
- Eulogium of Symbolic Freemasonry, p.692. 

34. Royal Insight — The Queen's Christmas Message 1999. 

35. Cahill. The Gifts of the Jews. p. 129. 

36. Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 1946. Vol. 3, p. 1444. 

37. The Heritage Lodge A..F. & A.M. No. 730 G.R.C., By-laws: Preface, Objectives, revised 

38. Lowenthal. The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. Preface, p. xvi. 

39. William Simon McVittie (1906-1980) Initiated July 4, 1929, New Hope Lodge No. 279, 
Hespeler (Cambridge); W.M. 1945; District Deputy Grand Master in Wellington District 1957. 

Grimwood, R.W.Bro. Charles F. Lodge Historian. The Heritage Lodge, 1981. 

Proceedings 1970, Report of the Committee on Warrants, p.201. 

Recommendation: "That all lodges appoint an interested Brother to record the history of the 
Lodge each year. We suggest that a plan be developed -which will ensure that such historical 
notes will be completed each year and placed with the records of the Lodge.'' - R.W.Bro. 
Bruce M. McCall, Chairmaa 

40. Evans, p. 142. 

41. Proceedings, 1980. p. 41 . "... in recognition of his scholarly contribution" as editor of the 
Committee that produced. Whence Come We - Freemasonry in Ontario 1764-1989. 

42. Froude. Short Studies on Great Subjects. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1920. Vol 1, 
Part 1. p. 24. Lecture "The Science of History" The Royal Institution, 1864. 

43. Lowentlial. The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. Preface, p. xv. 

44. Froude. Short Studies on Great Subjects. Vol 1, Part 1. Lecture "The Science of History" 
The Royal Institution, 1864. 

45. Caliill. The Gifts of tlie Jews, p. 130. 

46. The Heritage Lodge. Proceedings. Vol. 21,1998. "When Truth Rushes Out" pp. 13-14. 

47. Halloran, W.Bro. R. Gordon. A Historical Overview of The Ancient St Jolin's Lodge, No. 
3,1794 to 1994. p.21. 

48. Herrington, Walter S. & Foley, Roy S. A.. History of tlie Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of 
Canada in tlie Province of Ontario 1855 -1955. p.l03. 

49. Granatstein, J. L. Who Killed Canadian History? Toronto: Harper Collins Canada, 1998. 
Preface p. xviii 



The First 150 Years of St Mark's Lodge No. 94 

Compiled by R.W.Bro. George R. Gale 

(Additional Material by Bro. Stephen J. Peters) 
Port Stanley Masonic Temple, Port Stanley, Ontario 

March 15"^, 2000 

Port Stanley is located at the mouth of Kettle Creek on the 
nortliemmost shore of Lake Erie. It was named after Lord Stanley, the 
father of the donor of the famous cup, following his visit to the area in 

Port Stanley has been an important harbour and destination point for 
many years. The site was first recorded on Galinee's map of 1670. The 
first non-native settler to take up residence was Colonel John Bostwick 
who arrived in 1812. The village was surveyed by Mahlon Burwell, P.M. 
of St. Thomas Lodge No. 30 (1818-19) in 1821. The commencement of 
development and investment into the harbour began in 1822. The 
London and Port Stanley Railway began operating in 1856. The line 
today is under tlie control of the Port Stanley Terminal Railway, which 
was opened in 1983. 

Port Stanley, was in its heyday from the 1920s until the 1940s, 
known as tlie Canada's Coney of the North. Memories flow of the big 
bands who played at the Stork Club, the largest dance floor in Canada 
from 1926 until it was destroyed by fire in 1979. Port Stanley, today, is 
a vibrant village known for its great beaches, shops and restaurants, the 
P.S.T. Railway, boating and fishing. 

Masonry, in what we know as Elgin County, has entered its fourth 
century! The first record was of Howard Lodge No. 14, Southwold, which 
was foimded in 1798 and met until 1804. The next lodge that met was 
at St. Thomas known as St. Thomas Lodge of Friendship No. 30 from 
1818 until 1822. Tliis lodge was warranted by tlie so-called Schismatic 
Lodge of Upper Canada in 1818. The third lodge to be instituted, is the 
topic of this paper, The Little Lodge in the Valley. 

Port Stanley was originally part of Middlesex County. Elgin County 



was established in 1852, after the lodge was founded. Some brethren of 
St. John's Lodge No. 209 A (founded in 1841), who lived in Port Stanley 
petitioned for sponsorship of a new lodge. 

On March 19"^, 1850, at a regular meeting of St. John's Lodge 209 A, 
it was regularly moved and supported that the sum of 7 pounds, 12 
shillings, 6 pence sterling be advanced to the brethren of Port Stanley 
who have forwarded to Bro. Daniel with a petition to the Grand Lodge 
of Ireland for a warrant to hold a Lodge in the village of Port Stanley 
and one Macty of said sum to be granted to them and the balance to be 
refunded when they become able to do so. 

A Warrant was signed on March 19,1 850, giving the permission for 
a Masonic Lodge to held at Port Stanley, denominated "Middlesex 
Lodge'* and numbered 21 1 on the register of Grand Lodge of Ireland. 

The secretary of St. John's Lodge reported, on May 1 3*^ 1 85 1 , that 
he had received from Wm. D. Hale the sum of 5 pounds/19 shillings/7 1/2 
pence, for the portion payable for the warrant of 21 1 in Port Stanley. It 
was also mentioned that 9/4/2 had been paid for 5 certificates. 

On June 10, 1851, tlie secretary of St. John's read a letter from Bro. 
Hale, the W.M. elect of Middlesex Lodge No. 211. That the brother 
intended to request the good officers of this Lodge to proceed to Port 
Stanley for the purpose of installation of officers on the 24th inst and 
gratefully acknowledges past favours ... It was regularly moved and 
seconded that, this lodge do meet at 7 a.m. St. John's Day the 24th inst 
for the purpose of installing our officers and then proceed to Port 
Stanley to consecrate No. 211 and install the officers and that a 
communication be sent carrying this resolution. 

St. John's Lodge held their meeting June 24, 1851, at 7 a.m., 
installed their own oflScers, loaded into wagons or carriages and 
proceeded to Port Stanley, where they met at the Lodge, after which they 
paraded to the church. Christ Anglican on Colbome St. was the only 
church in the Port at the time and is still there today. They met again at 
the lodge rooms for tlie purpose of installation. We have no idea where 
the lodge rooms were at this time. They then moved the North American 
Hotel for sumptuous meal. The brethren of London climbed back into 
their wagons and carriages at 6 p.m. arriving back in London at 
approximately 10 p.m.. 

The first slate of ofiRcers installed were: 

Worsliipfiil Master William Dundas Hale 

Senior Warden David Thompson 

Junior Warden Henry B . Bostwick 

The other charter members were; John Campbell, John H. Da\'ison, 



James T. Bald, Jolin Henderson, James C. Crysler, Etlian Gregory. It is 
interesting to note that seven of the nine members came from St. John's 
Lodge 209 A. One of those was the newly installed Junior Warden, Henry 
B. Bostwick. Henry was to go on to be part of tlie push to form the Grand 
Lodge of Canada and became Grand Pursuivant. He would disappear 
from Middlesex Lodge only to reappear eight years later. 

Those who joined Middlesex Lodge during that year were; Randolph 
Johnston, Asa Fordyce, Edward Gregory Forkwath, Edward Irwin, Wm. 
Bobier, John Bostwick and Thomas Dickson Warren were both very 
instrumental in starting other lodges and Chapters as well. Three other 
gentlemen affiliated from St. Thomas Lodge No. 21, being Major John 
Ellison, James Price and Mathew Child. 

Middlesex Lodge played an important role with the new Court House 
in St. Thomas. On June 13, 1852, the ceremony of tlie laying of the 
cornerstone of the Elgin County Courthouse on Wellington Street, St. 
Thomas was performed with imposing Masonic ceremonies. 

The brethren of St. Jolm's Lodge No. 209A, London along witli tlie 
members of the Royal Artillery Band left tlie town at 7:00 a.m. by a six- 
horse coach. At 1 1 a.m. tliey were welcomed by W. Bro. W. D. Hale of 
Middlesex Lodge No. 211, Port Stanley at the St. Thomas Town Hall. 
The procession, to the site of tlie ceremony, was headed up by tlie St. 
Thomas Band followed by tlie Beaver Fire Company, Cadets of 
Temperance, Sons of Temperance (St. Thomas and London), London 
Brass Band, Oddfellows (London), Southwold Calvary, London Rifle 
Band, London Artillery Band, St. John's Lodge No. 209 A, London, and 
Middlesex Lodge No. 211, Port Stanley. 

The cornerstone was laid by members of Middlesex Lodge No. 211, 
assisted by St. John's Lodge No. 209A. W.Bro. W. D. Hale performed the 
ceremony. In a cavity under the stone was placed a glass jar containing 
tlie usual items. At the conclusion of the ceremony W.Bro. Hale 
addressed the large crowd assembled by explaining the ceremony and 
details of Freemasonry. 

Freemasonry is an institution of the most moral tendency, and of the 
most elevated principles. It is an institution formed upon a system, that 
if properly adhered to, cannot fail to prepare its members for the 
rewards promised us in a future state, by the Great Author of all being! 

I have also to thank those of the uninitiated for their patience and 
attention with which my remarks have been received. I now say to them 
that when you hear a Mason condemned as belonging to a secret society, 
I beg to remind you, that charity is the best and noblest attribute of our 
Fraternity; and that the mason, or his widow and his orphan, if in 
distress are sure of prompt and speedy succor. 



This is the first recorded Masonic cornerstone to be laid in St. 
Thomas or Elgin County. Other Masonic cornerstones are: 
Presbyterian Church, St. Thomas, 1865, M.W.Bro. Wm. Mercer Wilson; 
Wellington Street Methodist Episcopal Church, St. Thomas, 1874, M.W. 
Bro. Wm. Mercer Wilson; 
St. Mark's Lodge No. 94, Port Stanley, 1874; 
Alma College, St. Thomas, 1878; 
St. John's United Church, Springfield, 1878; 
St. John's United Church, Dutton, 1890; 
City Hall, St. Thomas, 1898, M.W.Bro. E. T. Malone; 
St. John's Anglican Church, St. Thomas, 1909, M.W.Bro. D.F. MacWatt; 
City Hall, St. Thomas, Re-dedication, 2000. 

In 1855 the 13 Irish Constitution Lodges in Canada West were 
invited to attend the founding convention of the Grand Lodge of Canada. 
Of the 12 who attended the October 10 meeting in Hamilton no reference 
is found to Middlesex Lodge No. 21 1 I. C. At the first Grand Lodge on 
July 1, 1856, at Hamilton there is again no reference to Middlesex Lodge 
No. 211. In 1857 the members of Middlesex Lodge asked St. Thomas 
Lodge No. 21 to sponsor a new lodge. The Charter was granted to St. 
Mark's Lodge No. 53. 

A letter was written and sent to the Grand Lodge of Ireland, dated 
June, 1858 from the Grand Lodge of Canada, Hamilton, Canada West, 
which says in part: 

The following is a list of affiliated Lodges from your jurisdiction 
Nos. 211, 222, 209, 227, 231, 232, 236, 286, 323, 358, also Wellington 
Lodge 359 Stratford, and 232 St. Thomas Lodge (13 lodges), many of the 
foregoing report that they have already sent back their warrants but 
should either have neglected to do so I shall be most happy in affording 
you any further information on the subject. Thos. B. Harris. 

With that, the Irish years have come and gone, with not a lot of 
knowledge as to what did go on, or even where. The Union between the 
Grand Lodge of Canada and the Ancient Grand Lodge of Canada 
occurred on July 14, 1858. St. Mark's Lodge No. 53 was re-numbered 94 
at that time. That year the District Deputy's Report stated in part: sorry 
to say that there is no uniformity of work, scarcely any two lodges 
working alike. 

Henry B. Bostwick had disappeared, but surfaced again at Grand 
Lodge as the Grand Pursuivant, and fellow member of St. Mark's R. W. 
Bro. Thomas Dickson Warren, was the Grand Junior Warden. Both of 
the brothers would again represent St.Mark's the following year in 1859 
and 1861. 

TheD.D.G.M. of 1862says:/v/.s/Ye^5'/. Thomas Lodge, St. Thomas 



and St Mark's Lodge in Port Stanley. The work of both of these lodges is 
similar, not quite correct, but generally following that of Grand Lodge. 
It was with much pleasure that I acknowledge the valuable assistance I 
have received from R. W.Bro. T.D. Warren, Past Grand Junior Warden, 
to whom also I am indebted for many acts of kindness. It should be 
mentioned that R. W.Bro. T. D. Warren was also the Worshipful Master 
of Warren Lodge, in Fingal, the lodge that was named after him. 

On September 10, 1867, St. Mark's Lodge No. 94 and Prince of 
Wales Lodge No. 171, Zona hosted a pic-nic at Port Talbot. In an 
advertisement the W.M.s, Charles Brown and John Edgcombe, assured 
that every extension will be made by the members of both of the said 
Lodges, to make the Pic-Nic a success. Sailboats, good music and 
various other means of enjoyment will be provided. 

Three of the lodge brethren decided that a piece of land should be 
bought and a nice lodge built thereon. The Worshipful Master, Nelson S. 
McCoU, along with Major John Ellison, made the arrangements for the 
mortgage, bought tlie property that is still known as 29 1 Bridge St. Major 
Ellison built a handsome two-storey lodge building of frame construction. 

Grand Lodge reported the following: December 27, 1869. At Port 
Stanley a new Hall was dedicated and the event celebrated by a ball and 
supper which was eminently successful. The London Daily Free Press 
reported it this way: December 29, 1869, The Masonic Brethren at Port 
Stanley have already erected a handsome and commodious building for 
the lodge room and other purposes. Yesterday (December 27), the new 
hall was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies and the members of the 
lodge with brethren from other lodges celebrated the event of the day in 
the lower part of the building with a supper and ball. Among the visitors 
present were V. W.Bro McNab acting for the D.D.G.M. Bro. Edgcombe 
and others from lona ; Bro. Birch and others, Lambeth; Bro Walker and 
Penwarden, Fingal; etc. etc. The hall having been dedicated to the 
purpose of Masonry in due form and several brethren having received 
degrees, the following were duly installed into their respective offices: 
W.M. Bro. Samuel Shepard; S. W. Bro. John Sweeney; J. W. Bro. Ln 
(Lauchlin) Leitch; Treas., J. Mason; Sec. Bro. Wm. Hemphill; Chap. 
Bro. T Edgcombe; D. ofC, Major Ellison; S.D. Bro. J. T. C. Finlay; 
J.D. Bro. Dr. Sutherland; Stwds. Bros.C. EadandRobt. McCorkill; LG. 
Bro. Andrew Hepburn; Tyle, Bro. Wm. Gough. 

The duties and formalities having been attended to, brethren of the 
lodge and visitors together with many of their ladies sat down to an 
excellent supper furnished in first rate style by Bro. Sweeney. This 
having received the attention that it so eminently deserved, the 
capacious room was cleared for those fond of the dance had their full 



share of enjoyment to the late hours in the morning. The only drawback 
to the whole proceedings being the unfavourable state of the weather 
and the roads which doubtless hindered many who would have been 
present under more favourable circumstances. 

The new wood frame building was 45 x 21, neatly and attractively 
furnished along with the site cost about $1, 000, with Major Ellison being 
the contractor. Besides every convenience for lodge purposes a spacious 
lower storey will be available for commercial and other purposes and, 
being in the centre of the village, would no doubt soon be occupied. 

The lower storey was rented out to become the first Post Office in 
Port Stanley and remained there imtil circumstances changed everything! 

Finally it had happened, the members had gotten a lodge room of 
their own, with a store space below and that was a plus. At first view the 
price appears low, at only $1,011 for the property and the building. 
Consider that a labourer may earn $7 a week and if he put every cent into 
buying that property and building leaving nothing to live on it would take 
him 2 3/4 years to pay for it. If we transcribe this condition into today's 
situation at a weekly wage of $400, they would have paid $57,772 which 
is still not too bad, but a big bill for a lodge to pay! 

The lodge has been governed by men of all talents in tlie persons of 
Wm. Dundas Hale who was master from 185 1 to 1859. Thomas Dickson 
Warren who was also the Grand Junior Warden the same year he was 
Master. Samuel Shepard, Wm. Given, 1863, Dr. Duncan Millar, Wm. H. 
Mandeville, 1865, (sometimes written as Manderville) the founder and 
first master of Spartan Ladge in Sparta and in the same year too! Chas. 
H. Brown, 1868, Nelson Simpson McCoU, 1869 and 1870 and was one 
of the two men who later put St. Mark's in its own lodge rooms. 

The Canadian Home Journal of April 14, 1871, reported on the 
activities of St. Mark's Lx)dge No. 94. Excerpts from the report illustrate 
well tlie character of the lodge. 

At a regular meeting of Saint Mark's Lodge No. 94, convened on the 
77'* inst. after opening in due form, in view of the recent bereavement 
ofW.Bro. Lauchlin Leitch, a resolution of condolence was unanimously 
passed. The lodge then adjourned, and in a body waited upon Brother 
Leitch at his residence, when the resolution, accompanied with a few 
expressions of fraternal sentiment, was read by P.M. Samuel Shepard as 
follows: Whereas it has pleased T.G.A.U.T.U. (sic), in His infinite 
wisdom, to afflict our W.M., Bro. Lauchlin Leitch, by taking from him a 
dear and beloved partner. Be it therefore resolved that this lodge desires 
to express and convey to him our heartfelt sympathy with him in his 
severe bereavement, and our desire by kindly offices to soothe his 



affliction, and pledge ourselves, as in duty bound, to exercise due 
solicitude and care for the protection and welfare of his infant child, 
through all the vicissitudes of life; and we further express the hope that 
when the trials of this transitory life are over we may meet above in the 
Temple made without hands, in the world that knows no shadows. 

Wm. Hemphill, was Master in 1874 and he would remember that 
year for the rest of liis life. He was just starting lodge, September 8th, 
1874, when someone screamed that the bam behind the lodge was on 
fire! They got most of the belongings out and with help they retrieved 
most of the Post Office's contents too before it was all consumed by the 
fire. The fire was started on purpose by a man who had a mania for 
watching bams bum down. Bro. John Batt had built a big and complete 
hotel on Main St. tliat was to become important to St. Mark's, being our 
meeting place until tlie lodge hall was rebuilt. 

The new building would have a basement, which the previous 
building never had and on Nov. 2, 1874, R.W.Bro. W. D. McGoghlon, 
D.D.G.M. from London, acting for the Grand Master, came down to 
perform the comerstone laying ceremony. Assisting were 16 of St. Mark's 
past masters and officers as well as visitors, assisted by a large number 
of brethren from the following lodges; St. George's 42, St. Thomas 44, 
King Solomon 43, Kilwinning 64, Albion 84, Beaver 83, King Hiram 78, 
St. Mark's 94, St. Paul's 107, Warren 120, Prince of Wales 171, Spartan 
176 and others. 

The Weekly Dispatch of November 5, 1 874, offers a glimpse into the 
evening after the ceremony: After which they proceeded to Capt. 
Sweeny's hotel where a magnificent repast was prepared, to which the 
brethren did ample justice. The ball in the evening was a decided 
success. A splendid supper was spread in the second flat of the brick 
school, dancing being carried on underneath. The party broke up at 
about four in the morning well pleased with the whole proceedings. 

The new $3,000 two-storey, white brick building was dedicated by 
D.D.G.M. McGlochlon on May 4, 1875, with Thomas Robinson, the 
Master of the Lodge. The D.D.D.M. Report that year indicates: 

Under dispensation from the acting Grand Master dedicated the new 
hall built by St. Mark's Lodge No. 94 which is a very handsome structure 
and reflects great credit on the members of the lodge, the full 
proceedings of which I reported to the Acting Grand Master. 

This event had two long-lasting affects. First, the fire caused the 
lodge to assume a mortgage which they could hardly afford; secondly, the 
silver trowel used to lay the comerstone was given to the D.D.G.M. as a 
special memento of the occasion. It disappeared, resurfacing years later 
in an unusual manner. 



Around 1939-40, R.W.Bro. Hershal Goodhue, the secretary of St. 
Mark's Lodge No. 94 received a letter stating that the location of the 
trowel was known. He would be given the location in return for some 
information about Canadian war efforts. Brother Goodhue refused, telling 
the letter writer in no uncertain terms where to go. Goodhue then 
embarked on a mission to acquire it himself without selling secrets. He 
contacted the Grand Master of New York State who offered to assist in 
finding the trowel. Eventually it was located in a pawnshop in New York 
City. Goodhue traveled to New York and after some negotiating he was 
able to acquire tlie trowel and bring it back to Port Stanley. 

The St. Thomas Journal reported on July 22, 1879, that St. Mark's 
Lodge No. 94 was hosting its annual Grand Masonic excursion to 
Cleveland July 29. Brethren and their families travelled on the steamboat 
City of Montreal to visit the usual attractions of that fine city. The trip 
from Port Stanley to Cleveland and return cost $1.75 per person. 

Membership was 30 members in 1866, rose to 41 in 1877, and in 
1880 dropped to 21. The next four years it fluctuated slightly, rising to 
23 then falling to 19. Hubbard Ellison, (one of the Major's sons) tried to 
bring it back in his four-year term, but to no avail. John Pollock and 
Duncan May would try, with two-year terms, and James Ellison (Major's 
son) with a three-year term into 1891. During this period of time the 
attitude that prevailed got worse. Members would take any chair except 
that of the Worshipftil Master. 

The Ellison family relationship with our heritage is most interesting: 

John Ellison (1785-1860) was a member and past master (1821) of 
St. Thomas Lodge No. 30. He would later affiliate with Middlesex Lodge 
No. 21 1 and St. Thomas Lodge No. 44; 

John (1814-1889) son of John a.k.a. Major John, was a builder, 
soldier, politician and Mason. He was a commanding officer of the 25th 
Regiment (Elgin), Worshipful Master of St. Mark's Lodge in 1865; Reeve 
of Southwold Township in 1869, 1870 and 1872, Warden of Elgin 
County in 1872 and the first Reeve of the Village of Port Stanley in 1874; 

Two sons of John also served as masters of St. Mark's Lodge, 
Hubbard Ellison (1879-1883) and James D. Ellison (1888-1890); 

Harry Milton Ellison, son of Hubbard, was also a member of St. 
Mark's Lodge No. 94 and served as Worshipful Master in 1915; 

Richard, son of John Ellison Sr., andbrother of Major John, fathered 
two intriguing sons: Saram R and William B, both Masons; 

Saram, bom Jan. 17, 1852, in St. Thomas was a medical doctor who 
moved to New York City in 1876 and joined Manitou Lodge No. 106 in 
1883. He became a member of Mocca Temple on October 29, 1885, and 



in 1891 became its second Recorder, a position he would hold for 25 
years! He was coroneted a 33° Mason of the Northern Jurisdiction of the 
Scottish Rite in 1893. Saram was proud of the fact that he personally 
knew all 13 founders of the Shrine. He also co-founded the Society of 
American Magicians, assembled the first great library of conjuring books 
and periodicals and personally fashioned scale replicas of the best 
magical illusions of liis day. Dr. Ellison passed away on March 26, 1918; 

William Bruce Ellison, bom July 17, 1857, in St. Thomas was a 
lawyer who went to New York City in 1882. He became very active in 
local and state politics including two failed attempts as a Democrat for 
the office of mayor. In his second attempt he was a close runner-up. 
William was a Mason but exact details of his membership are not known. 
He died on December 6, 1924. 

In 1892 Lyman G. Jarvis occupied the Master's chair. This was good 
and not so good, because Lyman Jarvis liad a farm, on an area known as 
Orchard Beach. His claim to fame was that he was the world's first 
professor of poultry which took him all over Canada and the United 
States to judge poultry shows. This would mean that he would not always 
be available for lodge. 

One wonders if he was aroimd when the Masonic Lodge was 
reported to be on fire (again)? This time the fire was internal and the 
west wall fell into Andrew Hepbimi's yard. His daughter Agnes watched 
it fall. She told me that she ran out to pick up some of the cute looking 
wooden things tliat had fallen out with the wall (working tools ). Agnes 
kept them as treasures but in later years they disappeared. 

The lodge had to be rebuilt. This meant again they would have to 
find temporary quarters. The first time Bro. John Batt let tlie lodge use 
a room in his hotel. This time W.Bro. Duncan May let the lodge use the 
second storey of Moon and May General Store on Main Street. 

Two brothers scurried to Hamilton to get a charter replacement for 
the March meeting. The lodge was rebuilt as before. Fortunately a few of 
the books were not in the lodge but at home with the secretary and the 
treasurer. The lodge lost all its furniture. Springfield Lodge had met with 
hard times and was no longer active thus their furniture was up for sale. 
Bro. John Dadson tlie Treasurer travelled to Springfield and bought the 
three principal chairs for a whopping sum of $79. 

This membership slmnp was to creep up on them over the next year 
or two with a drive for membership in 1892, bringing in 10 candidates, 
this dropped to two in *93 and '94, one in '95, then nothing, until '98 
with two more. During this period, there was a lack among the ranks for 
they would take any office except W.M. There was reluctance to take on 
the secretary's job as well. These were very hard times. 



The first brethren who would turn this situation into a better one 
were received as candidates. One was Walter Mitchell, a 29-year-old 
businessman. He owned a lumber yard, a hardware store and several 
smaller business. He built a hydro-electric generator putting lights in the 
streets a full year before St. Thomas. In lodge work he became a 
perfectionist and, as W.M., he expected the same from everybody else. 
Jack Brumpton has said: You didn't fool around when Walter was in the 
chair! He was all business! 

1920 to 1929 was the era where Lodge work and attention to the 
smallest detail was going to be sharpened to a razor's edge by two 
completely different men. They were both experts in what they did. In 
1920 tliey only took in three candidates but one of those was to become 
a pillar of strength to the lodge. John Leonard Brumpton was to lead 
everybody by example. He is a quiet unassuming man who never has 
raised his voice in anger in his entire life. In 1922 four candidates were 
brought in: Harvey Lanning, John (Jack) Dennett, Arthur Selboume 
(Sob) Taylor and Harry Fraser, but the one that made the difference to 
everybody was the affiliation of W.Bro. Joseph Herbert (Joe) Burke. He 
came from St. George's Lodge No. 243, in St. George setting up a 
tinsmith and hardware business in the village. He also became the village 
clerk, treasurer, justice of the peace and issuer of licences. Masonic life 
in this once quiet village was never going to be the same again, that goes 
for the whole district in light of the fact in 1925 he became D.D.G.M. of 
the St. Thomas District. Joe could be a hard man to work with if you 
were contemplating on carrying on your old ways. 

In 1 924-25 Jack Brumpton was master of the Lodge. Jack's two years 
brought in eight more candidates with two affiliations. Three of these 
were going to become Masters. Jack Brumpton 's years represent the very 
last time that any master would sit in the master's chair more than one 
year. The Twenties finished off in good style, being more active than they 
had been in many years. The interest in the work would be raised, but 
this would stall for a bit. 

1930 to 1939, Depression years, money and jobs were scarce. There 
were only two applications received in 1930 to 1933. One of those, Jim 
Quinn, who would become another important wheel within the lodge. 
From 1934 to 1939, there were only 12 applications and two affiliations. 
Eight of those applicants and both affiliates became masters of the Lodge 
and four became Grand Lodge officers. The most important thing to 
come out of this period was a man who would singlehandedly turn all of 
the woes of so many years ago completely around. This is a delicate thing 
as I have no desire to appear to make anyone's efforts seem less than 



important, but considering the odds and the task he took on makes him 
special, at least to me. Ke is Frank Stanley Sanders, a lawyer by 
profession and a Queen's Counsel in later years. 

The 1940s was a hard time for everyone, food was rationed because 
the military required a lot of it and materials were likewise scarce. One 
would assume that because of the eligible men joining the services, 
candidates would become scarce as well! Not quite! Between 1940 and 
1945 St. Marks received 32 candidates and four affiliations. During the 
war this region had four air schools, one being a gun and bomber school 
in Fingal, which kept an air rescue station with a boat to help downed 
planes or maintain the target out in the lake. This meant that some of the 
men stationed nearby wanted to join the Craft and many picked St. 
Mark's. During this time St. Mark's had a very good complement of 
officers and members. This brought the membership of St. Mark's from 
63 in 1939 to 86 in 1945. 

During this wartime period Grand Lodge started a British War Relief 
Fund Committee for the direct relief of Masons in Britain who needed 
help. All the lodges sent in money to Grand Lodge for this service and 
later the secretary would receive a letter of thanks from a most grateful 
family. To get one of those letters was to pick up the spirits of all those 
brotliers here and make you feel so proud. 

St. Mark's reported to Grand Lodge that they had worked 1 1 first 
degrees, nine fellowcraft degrees and six master mason degrees in 1945 
alone. It is only fair that you should know that when it came to the 
installation of officers on or near the 27* of December, the whole 
evening's affair was done entirely by Joe Burke one year and next year 
it would be Jim Quinn, then back to Joe. This was not up for discussion 
or dispute, it was just a fact as laid down by Joe himself. Joe's constant 
hammering on the absolute necessity for perfection meant that any 
member of St. Mark's knew what was going to happen if he goofed up. 
Stan Smith said the first time he gave a piece of work he was nervous 
that he might make a mistake - he did - and was told about it. Stan never 
let that happen again. 

1950 to 1960 saw another good group of masters to lead the lodge in 
maintaining the high standard of the work already set before them. Ken 
Tumbull who owned and operated Mackies on the beach, was personal 
friends with the big band leaders, because they went to Mackies during 
orchestra breaks. Rodney Roush was one of those who would fix or 
correct any building maintenance problem that cropped up. Ganlet Speers 
was an excellent ritualist who never forgot a piece of work. Jim Marlatt 
was yet another who could do either of the above. Robt. (Bob) Nicholas 
was an excellent master and a superb pianist in spite of the fact that he 



only had one arm and was nearsighted. It was said Bob can do more with 
that one hand than most can do with two! Dr. Clinton (Clint) Bell was 
one of a kind. He was teased that after the Lord made him. He threw the 
mold away. This is displayed best by taking a look at the official visit of 
the D.D.G.M. He put on a third degree in a lodge room that was 28 feet 
wide by 33 feet long and full of 128 registered members. This was the 
magnetism of his personality. 

Joe Monteitli Jr. got a little, more than he hoped for when it was 
decided that the roof needed to be replaced which was to be started today 
and we will finish it in the morning. Except, a cloudburst came and 
ruined the ceiling, the walls and the plaster. Joe had to organize a giant 
repair and clean-up crew. 

1960 to 1969 brought about some more changes in the structure of 
the lodge as we see it. Frank Sanders found out who owned the Masonic 
building. Then contacted Mrs. Finley who lived in British Coliunbia, 
organized it so we could buy back the lodge with a mortgage being 
carried here. In 1966 it was paid off and we owned the building without 
benefit of a mortgage for the first time in 97 years. Frank also set up the 
Port Stanley Masonic Temple Inc., with a board of directors and a format 
to follow. Frank is inclined to be shy about these accomplishments but 
the members of St.Mark's owe W.Bro. Frank Sanders a large debt of 

Another thing that happened was the end of an era that left an 
indelible mark on this lodge. R. W.Bro. Joseph Herbert Burke passed 
away on December 10, 1961. Can Joe really be gone when his work is 
around us all the time? To Joe Burke we also owe a large debt of 
gratitude for the manner in which he instilled the natural desire for 

There is another thing that happened at this time that changed St. 
Mark's. W.Bro. Lome Olsen was a farmer by trade but he was really 
enthusiastic about the lodge and figured that what we needed was some 
young blood among the ranks. To this end he brought into the lodge 10 
applications; they did 8 second degrees and 7 third degrees. All of the 
applications were young fellows, who brought in more young fellows. 
Now a whole new outlook was at hand with yoimg blood to go through 
the ranks. This brought the membership to 161. Thus in the 60's a new 
path was laid down where young members would tread and learn, and 
earn a very good reputation. 

In 1966 the lodge had 161 which was the first time for that high 
number of members. In the period of 1970, the numbers dropped to 149 
as the grim reaper was playing havoc with senior members. Under the 



leadership of young masters as Dick Barendregt, Morris Shaw, Ray 
Churchill, Clifton Parker, Jim Helmer, Jack Meeuse, Caiman Hindley, 
Don Hardwick and Steve Ivan. During this period they received 39 
candidates and nine affiliations. 

The highlight of this period was 1976, when W.Bro. George Arthur 
Lang was elected and installed as D.D.G.M. for St. Thomas District. 
Nov. 20* that year, the Grand Master M. W.Bro. Eric Nancekivell, and 
a large number of Grand Lodge officers came to St. Thomas District for 
the Grand Master's official visit in honoiu" of the celebration of the 125"* 
anniversary of the founding of St. Mark's Lodge in Port Stanley. This 
event was hosted in the spacious setting of the famous Stork Club at Port 
Stanley. There was in attendance over 400 people, but the club is so large 
it could host another group of the same size with lots of room in the 
middle for dancing. There was room for everything. The whole occasion 
was a day to remember, directed by R. W.Bro. Art Lang, D.D.G.M. 

In the 1980s the trend still continued to young masters and officers. 
By putting young and older brethren together the lodge attained an 
atmosphere of warmth and friendship. 

The 90s have been no different than the 80s. The lodge still blessed 
with a good supply of young officers becoming masters. In the 90s these 
were Chas. Rewbotham, Richard Lanning, M. W. (Andy) Anderson, 
Evan Graham, Mike Barendregt, Roy Sawyer, Dale Pickard, Don 
MacKinnon, Jefifery Shaw, Mark Brown, and Brian Shaw. 

All of these names and the ones before can conjure up enough stories 
to fill a large book, some sad but many fim and entertaining. When you 
look at the niunber of candidates the 90s brought in — which was 32 with 
five affiliations — tells the story that we have entered another of those 
periods of time that all lodges have seen — that is lack of candidates. 

St. Mark's arrives at its one hundred and fiftieth year in the best 
shape it has ever been . The officers and many of the members are also 
young and active, who rely on the senior members for help and guidance. 
In St. Mark's there is no such a thing as an age gap; nor even a 
communication gap. All these things those members of many years ago 
would be very proud of, just to know that the Little Lodge in the Valley 
is strong enough to weather the storms of time and still come out the 
other side with a smile and a feeling of satisfaction. 

If you look at the whole picture of 150 years you will see that St. 
Mark's seems to have moved in three 50-year periods. The first 50 years 
was the formation period full of strife, trouble and misery far more than 
one Lodge is entitled to. The second 50 years is the tiunaround period 
where all of those personality conflicts that plagued the lodge were slowly 
removed and those miseries of the last period were finally turned out or 



being turned around. In the third 50-year period the cleanup of the past 
was complete and now came the time to improve the quality of the 
membership to such levels of personal satisfaction and collective pride in 
the work of the Lodge, that would thrill the many hard workers of the 
bygone years that worked and sweat and probably near came to tears 
some times in those distant days, it would make their buttons strain with 

It has been a long hard road for this Little Lodge, the one down in 
the Valley of Kettle Creek, where the old lodge hall still stands even after 
so many aches and pains of years ago and her bright eyes that look like 
two windows to the untrained passerby, will smile back at you and give 
you a welcome to come again — you are always welcome in The Little 
Lodge in the Valley. 

NOTE: This is dedicated to a very special representative of 
those days and years well behind us in the person of V.W.Bro. 
John (Jack) Leonard Brumpton, who is the best friend a body 
ever had. Jack was W.M. in 1924 and 1925 after joining in 1920. 
On October 23, 2000, he will be in line for his 80 years as a 
Mason Pin, if there is such a thing . But Jack is real and he is 
the best in my mind. I am very grateful that I knew many of 
those older fellows and with Jack's help was able to understand 
many more. I thank Jack and all of the others who have left their 
mark of influence on me and they will last forever!!! 



by R.W.Bro. George R. Inrig 

Lindsay Masonic Temple, Lindsay Ontario 

Tuesday, May 9^, 2000 

For lack of a suitable title to this paper, I have decided to entitle HA 
Dance Around Masonic Jurisprudence and we are sure certain members 
will intone: He certainly did some fancy footwork. 

I had hoped that I might speak to you about Masonic Jurisprudence 
but found that the topic is so broad and the materials so sparse, not only 
in the library of this building, but even with the assistance of the Grand 
Lodge Library, it was impossible to cover the topic in any adequate 
manner in the time allotted. 

I had better correct myself, when I say tliat tlie materials are so 
sparse. I mean: the materials available to me. Indeed, the literature on the 
topic is very extensive, and could occupy one's time for many months. 

I would add, however, my appreciation to R. W.Bro. Ken Schweitzer 
who assisted me in finding material in the Grand Lodge Library and to 
Grand Scribe Ezra Mel Duke for his assistance in the same regard. Now, 
all I have to do is retimi all of those books to the Grand Lodge Library. 

I would also like to express my appreciation to The Masonic Service 
Association of the United States for sending to me, at my request. The 
Short Talk Bulletin Foundations of Masonic Law. This Association 
publishes a monthly bulletin which contains short papers on Masonic 
topics. It is well worth subscribing to. 

In a sense I am going to dance around Masonic Jurisprudence, 
tonight and in the end you will ask yourself What did he say? and What 
did he prove? and the answer is likely to be Nothing/. 

When one starts to consider Jurisprudence one immediately 
encounters the matter of definitions. And the whole evening could be 
spent in trying to define not only the word Jurisprudence but also the 
many accompanying words, such as philosophy and science. 



The words are simple enough when employed in day-to-day common 
usage, but when you try to define the words, they seem to bump into each 
other, and raise matters of semantics. For the scholar or the university 
professor, semantics may be a very interesting, if exacting, topic, but for 
the average Mason (of course, we don't have any of them here tonight) 
it would be extremely boring. 

However, I must move into the topic for a brief sojourn. The 
dictionaries (I use tlie term in the plural) give varying meanings to the 
word Jurisprudence: 

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (which is seldom short at all, but 
in this case, it is!) defines jurisprudence as 1(a): Knowledge of skill in 
law; 1(b) The science which treats of human laws (written or unwritten) 
in general; the philosophy of law. 2- A system or body of law; 
Reader's Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary (which is certainly no 
digest!) states: 1. The philosophy or science of law and its adminis- 
tration. 2. A system of laws; and 

Black's Law Dictionary defines in much greater detail The philosophy 
of law, or the science which treats of the principles of positive law and 
legal relations. And continues on for much longer than you would wish. 

In the heyday of science, all the areas of human knowledge wanted 
to be equated as a science. It was the buzzword of the time. In my 
opinion, many areas of knowledge do not conform to a science. I submit, 
for example, that you cannot have a science of politics so that the study 
of political science at the universities is a misnomer. 

You will note tliat one of the definitions of Jurisprudence is the 
science of law. Science is defined in the Shorter Oxford English 
Dictionary as the state or fact of knowing; knowledge or cognizance of 
something specified or implied . . . knowledge acquired by study; 
acquaintance with or mastery of any department of learning . . . A 
branch of study which is concerned either with a connected body of 
demonstrated truths or with observed facts systematically classified and 
more or less colligated by being brought under general laws and which 
includes trustworthy methods of the discovery of new truth within its own 

In my opinion, the study of law, or for that matter, the study of a 
legal system cannot be defined as a science. Law involves human 
participation and where there is human participation, nothing is absolute. 
Laws and politics can be changed at the wliim of an authority. Perhaps, 
I equate science to strictly with the deduction of facts from natural 



phenomena and the arrival at a conclusion based on logical application. 
The act of arriving at a conclusion by reasoning from the general to the 

So, in the splitting of hairs, I submit that you cannot have a science 
of law. However, the general consensus seems to be that Jurisprudence is 
one of two things: the philosophy behind, or the source of, a legal system; 
and the development of a legal system. It is in this sense that I speak 

John H.Wigmore,' a highly respected American jurisprudential 
writer, suggests tliat there are 16 legal systems in the world, and 
presumably each would have its own philosophy. I have listed the 16 in 
a footnote to this paper. ^-^ 

Wigmore does not include a Masonic Legal System. I presume that 
he eitlier does not consider a private organization as being a true legal 
system, or he does not wish to venture into that field because there may 
be other private organizations with extensive legal precedents. But, he 
does include the Canon Law and surely it would have to be classified as 
a private organizational legal system, that of the Christian Church. 

The literatiu'e on the topic seems to suggest that there has to be a 
philosophy of the law prior to the creation of tlie legal system. A 
pre-established set of principles upon which the decisions must be made. 

If there is any legal system in the world that started from a 
predetermined philosophy, it surely must be the Hebrew legal system; for 
Moses went up the mountain to receive from God the Ten 

The two most significant legal systems in the world, at least by 
today's standards, are the Civil Law System and the Common Law 
System. The Civil Law System derives its source in tlie law of Rome and 
has spread throughout the world through colonization by Spain and 
France. The Common Law system is a peculiar creation of the English 
and has similarly spread throughout the world by the British Empire. So, 
we find the Civil Law in countries of Central and South America as well 
as Europe, (and, I might add, in Quebec); and we find the Common Law 
System in North America, including both Canada and the United States, 
Australia, and India as well as many other of the former British Colonies. 

To some extent, the development of these two legal systems is 
similar, in that a body of judicial decisions produced a line of principles 
which became established law. The difference lies in tlie fact that 
legislation commences much earlier in the Civil Law System with the 



Caesars and the Senate of Rome making decrees which established a 
mode of conduct; and altliough much of the early law of Rome was lost, 
it was recovered in the time of Justinian and reconstituted by Napoleon. 
So the Civil Law System has been largely legislative in nature. The 
Common Law on the other hand is peculiar to Britain because Britain is 
an island and it was much easier to establish uniformity where there was 
less outside interference when the Royal Judges travelled throughout the 
country-side. Decisions were made which developed into a system of law 
through the process of stare decisis relying upon precedents. Little 
legislation occurred until Parliament started to become of importance in 
the late 1500s. So, the Common Law had progressed substantially for 
some 500 years, before legislation began to become involved. 

In neither of these systems can it be said that there was a philosophy 
of law or a philosophy of a legal system prior to the establishment of the 
system. It might be argued that the Civil Law System, having been 
affected very early in its development by legislation, has a philosophy to 
direct it (that is if one firmly believes that what the legislature does is 
based on a philosophy!) But there is no suggestion that prior to the 
rendering of any decisions, a philosophy of law had been provided. 

When we look at Masonic Jurisprudence, the question is: do we have 
a Masonic Legal System? When did it start? Of what is it composed? 
Certainly, we know that the Grand Lodge of England was formed in 
1717. I submit that we can say, with some certainty, that modem 
Masonic Jurisprudence commenced from that date and all Grand Lodges 
that owe their parentage to the Grand Lodge of England can claim the 
rulings of the Grand Masters, and the enactments of the Grand Lodge 
itself, to be a part of tlieir jurisprudence. 

The decisions and the rulings of the particular lodges prior to the 
establishment of the Grand Lodge of England"* would not, I submit, 
constitute part of tlie jurisprudence because it would apply only to the 
particular lodge. But each of the newly established Grand Lodges, 
throughout the world, would develop their own jurisprudence. 

I would submit further that in the case of Freemasonry, there was a 
philosophy upon wliich the constitution, the decisions and the rulings 
were based, in existence prior to the conunencement of the Grand Lodge 

The purpose in the establishment of the first Grand Lodge was to 
obtain uniformity in the degree work of the four London lodges and in so 
doing, the philosophy of Freemasonry would be developed. This 
philosophy is derived from the three degrees more particularly the third 



degree. In it, the philosophy of Speculative Freemasonry is principally 
found. It would be from this philosophy that future decisions by the 
Grand Lodge or by the Grand Masters would be made. 

We can say, witli authority, that from 1 7 1 7, a Masonic Jurisprudence 
has existed. The question, however, is: what, if any, prior to 1717, can we 
include as being a part of Masonic Jurisprudence? 

One of the greatest authorities on this topic is the late Roscoe 
Pound^. Pound is one of the most highly respected legal philosophers of 
recent years. He was a Mason and wrote a paper on Masonic 
Jurisprudence. Pound lists the sources of Masonic Jurisprudence as 

1. The Landmarks; 

2. The Ancient Constitutions; 

3. The Masonic Common Law being composed of the Usages and 

Customs of the Masons; 

4. The Rulings of the Grand Masters and the Enactments of the 
Grand Lodges; 

5. The Committees on Masonic Correspondence. 

I don't think that it is necessary to add anything in this paper to the 
fourth source, namely the Rulings of the Grand Masters and the 
Enactments of the Grand Lodges. These clearly constitute at least a part 
of our Masonic Jurisprudence. Nor is there any question of the Masonic 
Common Law provided that we are referring to those decisions and 
customs that arose after 1717. However, there is reason to question the 
other sources. 


You will recall, in the Ceremony of Installation, the Master-elect 
promises that he will not permit or sujfer any deviation from the 
established usages, customs and landmarks. If you have been involved 
with Freemasonry for any time at all, you will know that the Landmarks 
are treated as being sacred and are unchangeable. Roscoe Pound states 
that the Landmarks are part of Masonic Jurisprudence. What are the 
Landmarks? Says Poimd: . . . certain universal, unalterable, and 
unrepeatable fundamentals which have existed from time immemorial 
and are so thoroughly apart of Masonry that no Masonic authority may 
derogate from them or do aught but maintain them (p. 805). The problem 
is tliat there may be no landmarks. No one is certain as to what they are 
or were. Several writers have attempted to define the landmarks but there 



is no agreement. Pound states that the first use of the term landmarks 
appears in Payne's General Regulations^ published with Anderson's 
Constitutions of 1723. What did Payne say? He said: The Grand Lodge 
may make or alter regulations, provided the old Landmarks be carefully 
preserved. Apparently that is all he said, and it certainly doesn't tell us 
anything. Thus; the writers have had a field day trying to establish what 
landmarks Payne was referring to. Preston,^ in 1775, referred to the 
Landmarks as being synonymous with established usages and customs 
of the order But in our Ceremony of Installation, the Master-elect states 
suffer any deviation from the established usages, customs and landmarks. 
If landmarks are the established usages and customs, why repeat the 
word? Pound points out tlie use of the word on several occasions by other 
authors.^ But on none of those occasions is any information given as to 
the content of tlie Landmarks. 

Dr. Albert Mackey is probably the most well-known author of 
Masonic treatises. Every lodge library seems to have a copy of some of 
his works.^ Mackey declared there to be 25 Landmarks. Oliver, you will 
recall, he was the preacher, after reading Mackey's exposition, classified 
the landmarks into 12 classes of which he names 40 landmarks. But he 
also declared several to be obsolete or spurious. These are the unalterable, 
unchangeable landmarks. Some obsolete, some spurious. And as Pound 
points out, Oliver then says we have no actual criterion by which we may 
determine what is a Landmark and what not. A later writer reduced 
Mackey's list of 25 to 19. •" Mackey laid down three characteristics 
of a Landmark: 1. immemorial antiquity; 2. universality; 3. absolute 
irrevocability and immutability. 

Undoubtedly, there have been many papers written about the 
Landmarks in the twentieth century. Pound was writing in the early years 
of tlie past century. The newer works are unknown and unavailable to the 
writer of this paper. But I submit that no one today can positively state 
what tlie Landmarks of Freemasonry are. There certainly is no 
universality, as required by Mackey. There is also the question of 
antiquity since Mackey suggests that one of the Landmarks is the 
existence of tliree degrees, and yet, prior to 1813, some lodges were 
performing only two degrees. If the antiquity only goes back to 1813, 
tlien tliey are not very antique. If we don't know what they are, how can 
we follow them, and how can they be a part of our Masonic 




The Ancient Constitutions are a number of old manuscripts reported 
to be documents of the Operative Masons. The date that the same have 
been found is uncertain aUhough there are dates available as to when they 
were more recenUy published. The date of the documents themselves are, 
likewise, uncertain. Scholars have examined the documents to determine 
their approximate date of composition. The speculation surrounding the 
Ancient Constitutions is much like the speculation that took place with 
the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Their dates and importance and 
the message that they conveyed was and is much in disputed. So, too, 
with the Ancient Constitutions. Albert Mackey lists 19 manuscripts, the 
presumed oldest being the Halliwell MS supposed to have been written 
in 1390. The name Halliwell comes from the name of the man who first 
published it, and that was in 1840, with a second and enlarged edition in 
1844. The first three of the oldest manuscripts, namely the Halliwell, the 
Cooke and the Dowland MSS were published respectively in 1840,1861 
and 1815. In each case, the name refers to the publisher. The names of 
the 19 manuscripts and their supposed (and in some cases their certain) 
dates are contained in the footnotes.'' 

It is interesting to note that the publication of these ancient 
manuscripts occurred around the mid-nineteenth century; that Mackey 
did his monumental writing around this same period from 1854 to 1881, 
and that Pound too wrote at the turn of the century of the early 1900s. 
What transpired tiiat encouraged this abundance of writing about 
Freemasonry. What had occurred not long before this time which would 
give need to have an explanation? Could the Morgan Affair have been 
the catalyst to ferment this spree? You will recall that Morgan was the 
Mason who proposed to publish the secrets of the Order and he 
disappeared in September, 1826. The adverse publicity that occurred 
from this disappearance resulted in a black eye to Freemasonry in the 
United States and also in Canada. Members took their demits; lodges 
surrendered their charters and the popularity and reputation of 
Freemasonry was severely damaged. The Morgan incident gave rise to 
ihQ Anti-Mason Party in the northern United States and that party with 
all of its prejudices was the deciding factor in the Presidential Election 
of 1840 when William Henry Harrison of the Whig Party was elected 
President.'^ The prejudices against Masonry had reached their ultimate. 
Prior to the Morgan Affair, Freemasonry had been looked upon as an 
almost sacred Order to protect the freedoms and rights under the United 
States Constitution. 

From the establishment of the Grand Lodge in 1717, Masons went 



forth to the various parts of the worid and Freemasonry spread around the 
globe. Within 50 years, the most important men in the American 
Colonies were Freemasons: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Franklin. It can be said that the eighteenth century was the 
Expansionist period of Freemasonry. Surely, it can be said that the 
nineteenth century, at least from approximately 1850 onwards was the 
Apologist period of Freemasonry. The writers were seeking to relate 
current Freemasonry to something of antique value, to a distinguished 
past, and to improve its dignity and reputation among the general public. 
Whether or not, tlie Morgan Affair had a repercussion in England, it 
certainly had so in the United States and Canada, and, as we see, a 
number of Masonic writers commence their explanation of the Craft. I 
don't suggest for a moment, and I certainly would not want to be 
misunderstood, tliat these writers were fraudulent or insincere. They were 
seeking to put Freemasonry is its best light, to regain the prestige that 
had evaporated with the Morgan Affair. 

If the Ancient Constitutions contain material that is beneficial to 
present-day Freemasonry, it certainly should be a part of our historical 
background. Should they contain matters pertaining to the Masonic Legal 
System, they should be included in the Masonic Common Law, which is 
the next source that Pound mentions. 


Pound refers to the decisions and enactments that have occurred 
since 1717 and with that I do not disagree. This is properly the substance 
of the Masonic Jurisprudence. It is when an effort is made to bring the 
decisions and enactments of the Operative Masons into the Common Law 
of modem Freemasonry, Speculative Masonry, that I disagree. Surely, 
any decisions made regarding the Operative Masons were so made to 
address a specific problem and in no way constitute a basis for 
Speculative Masonry. 

I have no difficulty accepting the historical explanation of the rise of 
the Speculative Masons. I can compare it to the Officers' Mess of a 
military unit. The mess is the home of the officers of the unit and, 
wishing to have some connection and communication with the 
surrounding community, the officers would invite local people of 
standing to enjoy the social features of the mess. Eventually the military 
unit might be posted elsewhere and the local citizens would be in charge 
of the mess. Presumably, this is the story behind the origin of speculative 
Freemasonry out of Operative Freemasonry. But, the rules and 
regulations governing the mess would certainly differ from the orders and 



regulations that govern the military. And the usages and customs of the 
Operative Craft would have little significance to the Speculative Masons. 

At this point I wish to define two terms. One I call causal 
connection and the other adoptive connection. And I will give two 
examples to explain these terms as I use them. 

In this area of Ontario, we have a militia regiment known as the 
Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment. This infantry regiment earned 
more battle honours during the Second World War than any other 
Canadian infantry regiment. This military organization can trace its 
history back tlu-ough other-named units to the early days when the United 
Empire Loyalists formed militia imits for the defence of Upper Canada. 
The people in the present-day regiment can wear the insignia and 
uniform with the cap badge and designation because they have a casual 
connection to the original. 

In the United States, during the American Civil War, many military 
units were wiped out. Whole regiments were literally destroyed in a 
single battle. Following the war, there were no veterans and no local 
legion organizations formed with regard to those specific regiments. But 
in the 1960s onward, interested persons formed Re-enactment Groups 
and patterned themselves after former actual Civil War Units. Although 
they had no casual connection to these units, they wore the uniforms and 
the insignia by adoptive connection. In other words, they adopted the 
procedm^es, drill, orders and insignia. 

I make this distinction because whether we can establish a causal 
connection with the Operative Masons, there is no reason why we should 
not form an adoptive connection, thereby taking those parts of the 
degrees and customs of the Operative Masons and applying them to our 
Speculative ceremonies. But, we must remember that they are adoptive. 
It forms part of the mythology of Freemasonry. Just as the building of the 
Temple in Jerusalem is the basis of Freemasonic mythology, so too the 
Ancient Landmarks, if they can be discovered, and the Ancient 
Constitutions form part of our mythology. Of coiu^se, many Masons will 
not agree with my viewpoint. 


Roscoe Pound included as one of the soiu"ces of Masonic 
Jurisprudence, the Grand Lodge Committees on Masonic Corres- 
pondence. He suggests that these committees receive the correspondence 
from other Grand Lodges and review them to note matters pertaining to 
the regulation and order of the Craft. And through these committees and 



their reports to their respective Grand Lodges; a uniformity can be 
derived. It may be that was the situation in Pound's day, or it may be that 
was what he considered to be the proper way to go. It may also be the 
case that the meetings of the Grand Masters of North American has 
undertaken this task. In any event, the Committee on Masonic Corres- 
pondence does not perform this task in the Grand Lodge of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario. There really is no committee. The Grand Secretary's 
Office hires a person (a Mason) to review the correspondence and write 
a report. This is largely a newsy recitation of activities within the other 
Grand Jurisdictions. The author does an excellent job and these 
comments are in no way to be considered to be a criticism of his work. 
But, the Chairman of the Committee never sees the correspondence, is 
not forwarded the report of the author prior to it being published and 
does not have an opportimity to review, amend, or provide any input to 
the report. When I was the chairman of the Committee on Masonic 
Correspondence, I reported at the semi-annual meeting of the Board of 
General Piuposes that I had no interim report to make because I had 
received no correspondence. The comment apparently went imnoticed or 
if noticed ignored, for the report of the author went to the Grand 
Secretary's Office and when I enquired of the author, he was astounded 
that I had not received a copy. When I requested a copy from the Grand 
Secretary, he replied that it was at the printers and would be sent out with 
all of the preliminary printed reports. At that point, I felt that I was being 
used, my name being attached to a report as Chairman of the Committee 
in which I had had no input and had not even been accorded the courtesy 
of reviewing the report before it went for publication. That's when I 
resigned from tlie Board of General Piuposes. I saw no piupose in 
continuing. Had I had the opportimity to have read Roscoe Pound's 
remarks on the usefulness of the Committee on Masonic Correspondence, 
I would have taken a different approach to the matter and consulted 
further with the Grand Secretary. 

Howeverf to establish a Masonic Jurisprudence, we must have 
known precepts and not conjectural precepts. The rulings, decrees, 
orders, regulations and customs that have been established by the 
Grand Master, the Grand Lodge and the decisions coming from the 
Discipline Committee would constitute the Masonic Jurisprudence of 
the Grand Lodge. That alone is sufficient The adoption of information 
from the Landmarks, if ever determined, andthe Ancient Constitutions 
and the Masonic Common Law of the Operational Freemasons will 
add to the mythology of our CrafL 



That deals in a very brief manner with tlie sources suggested by 
Roscoe Pound for the establislunent of Masonic Jurisprudence. There is 
much more to be considered, but there is not time to do so in this paper. 
Hopefully, it may whet the appetite of my brother Masons to read more 
on tlie matter of topic and certainly I expect tliat it has had that effect 
upon myself. There is plenty of room for criticism and disagreement, and 
my furtlier reading may cause me to seek to amend tliis paper in the 


1. John Henry Wigmore: 1863 -1943; American lawyer and educator, professor 
of Anglo-American law in Tokio; professor Northwestern University from 1893 
to 1929; Dean of North westem University Law School from 1901-1929. 
Prominent writer particularly in the field of evidence. Author of "Panorama of 
tlie World's Legal Systems". 

2. Tlie Egyptian Legal System; the Mesopotamian; the Hebrew, the Chinese; the 
Hindu; tlie Greek; the Roman; tlie Japanese; the Mohammedan; the Keltic; the 
Slavic; the Germanic; tlie Maritime; the Papal; the Romanesque; and tlie 
Anglican Legal System. It is my understanding that it is incorrect to use the term 
"Mohammedan" and presumably today *hat system would be called the Moslem 
Legal System; and Wigmore also lists "the Papal Legal System" and presumably 
he is referring to the Canon Law which is not exclusively Roman Catholic. He 
also speaks of the Anghcan Legal System and I presume that he is referring to the 
Common Law System. 

3. Perhaps it should be noted that Civil Law System has had its impact on Canada 
in tlie Province of Quebec where the non-criminal law is based on the Napoleonic 

4. Speculative lodges can be traced back to 1646. 

5. Roscoe Pound (1870-1964) Dean of Harvard Law School from 1916 to 1 936. 
He was an internationally recognized autliority on jurisprudence. He wrote 
extensively including a five-volume work "Jurisprudence". "His theory of 
sociological jurisprudence emphasized that the law must recognize contemporary 
social conditions Rules of law, he believed, must be adapted to a changing world 
-ideas that greatly influenced New Deal social and economic reforms" 
(Encyclopedia Americana Vol. 22 p. 494). 

6. Payne was the second Grand Master afler 1717. 

7. Another Masonic writer of some note. 

8. Ashe's Masonic Manual in 1813; the Grand Master of England, the Duke of 
Suffolk, in 1819; Dr. George Oliver, a preacher, in 1820. 



9. Albert Mackey was bom in Charleston, South Carolina, on March 12,1 807. He 
followed in the footsteps of his father and practiced medicine and taught at the 
Medical College. In 1 854, he became so involved in Masonry that he gave up his 
practice and devoted all of his time and energy to his Masonic activities. Either 
he was a very rich man or his offices of Freemasonry must have paid well. He 
was the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge; Grand High Priest (equivalent to 
the Grand First Principal) of the Grand Chapter, and Secretary-General of the 
Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree, presumably of the Southern Jurisdiction of 
the Scottish Rite. He died June 20, 1 88 1 . He retired from Medical Practice at the 
age of 47. He wrote and published: A Lexicon of Freemasonry (1845); The 
Mystic Tie (1849); Book of Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina 
(1852); Principles of Masonic Law (1856); The Book of The Chapter (1858); A 
Text Book on Masonic Jurisprudence (1859); History of Freemasonry in South 
Carolina ( 1 86 1 ): Manual of the Lodge ( 1 862); Cryptic Masonry( 1 867); Mackey' s 
Masonic Ritualist ( 1 869); The Symbolism of Freemasonry ( 1 869) .Encyclopedia 
of Freemasonry (1874); Masonic Parliamentary Law (1875); and was in the 
process of writing The History of Freemasonry at the time of his death. He also 
published a weekly magazine in I 849 The Southern and Western Masonic 

10. Lockwood. 




Cooke MS 



Dowland MS 



Landsdowne MS 



York MS, No. 1 






Grand Lodge MS 



Sloane MS, No. 3848 



Sloane MS, No. 3323 



HarleianMS.,No. 1942 



Aitcheson-Haven MS. 



Edinburgh-Kilwinning MS 

i. supposed 


York MS. No. 5 



York MS, No. 6 



Lodge of Antiquity MS. 



York MS, No. 2 



Ahiwick MS 



York MS., No. 4 



Papworth MS. 



1 2. Andrew Jackson had been a 

Mason. Although dead by the time of the Election 

of 1 840, his party, newly defined as the Democratic Party, represented what the 

anti-Masons were against. 



by R.W.Bro. P. Raymond Borland 

Cambridge Masonic Temple, Cambridge, Ontario 

Wednesday, September 20, 2000 

The study of history frequently focuses on an individual whose 
actions personiiy the desires or moods for change within the society they 
represent. However those changes could not have been affected without 
the support or agreement of society for those changes. The purpose of this 
paper is to examine a number of events, customs and/or developments in 
social history wliich may have affected the development of Masonry in 
the Province of Ontario over the past 150 years. Towards this purpose an 
examination of the membership growth in Masoiuy, together with an 
examination of changes in society or the Masonic involvement in society 
will be completed. 

In his Heritage Banquet speech. Fact - Fiction - Fantasy: It's Ail 
History, R.W.Bro. Raymond Daniels explored various explanations for 
the term history. One of those concepts of interpreting history will be 
used in this examination of social influences on Masonry in Ontario. 
That concept is one in which theory is built upon or developed out of 
verifiable facts and docimientation. 

Central to this paper is the development of the membership of the 
Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario since its formation in 
1855 until the present. At its formation, the Grand Lodge of Canada in 
the Province of Ontario consisted of 41 lodges and 1,179 members. Over 
the following 64 years Masonic membership grew steadily and con- 
sistently by an average of 988.5 Masons annually to 458 lodges for a total 
of 63,457 members by the end of the First World War in 1918. From 
1919 to 1925 membership increased dramatically, almost doubling, to 
105,339 in 545 lodges; representing an average annual increase of 5,555 
Masons. The growth in membership continued from 1925 to 1931; 
however, at a rate of about one third, or 1,665 Masons aimually to reach 
a total of 1 16,998 Masons in 568 lodges. The recession which started in 



October 1929 started to have some impact on Masomy's growth resulting 
in an annual decline of 2,560 Masons in membership from 193 1 to 1941 
with only 91,398 Masons in 569 lodges. During the early 1940s 
membership once again showed modest gains and by 1944 membership 
gained rapidly at a rate of about 3, 166 Masons annually until by 1955 the 
Craft in Ontario had reached a total membership of 13,1992 Masons in 
596 lodges. After this period, membership continued to increase at a very 
modest rate of 884 members annually, until in 1960 the total number of 
Masons reached 13,6413. Masonry in Ontario reached its zenith in 1960 
as far as membership numbers were concerned. From this period onward 
the membership numbers declined steadily at a rate of 1,823 members 
annually, until in 1998 the annual returns of the Grand Lodge of Canada 
in the Province of Ontario showed a total of 67,124 Masons. 

The statistics are from the Grand Lodge Annual Proceedings which 
are calculated using the number of initiations, resignations, demits, 
afiRliations, suspensions and deaths to reach the annual total member- 
ship. It has been proposed from time to time that these statistics may be 
flawed when including affiliations; however it is the position of this 
paper that if there is any discrepancies on this point the numbers are 
significantly small as not to dramatically affect tlie annual totals, and the 
impact of any increase or decrease in membership as a whole. 

It is surprising that as the Masonic Order in Ontario enters the 
second millennium, its numbers are about half of what they were in 1 960; 
and almost the same as the membership numbers were in 1918 when the 
most dramatic increase in Masonic membership began. For the purposes 
of this paper, events, customs and attitudes which may have or may not 
have affected the development of Masonry will be considered. The five 
general periods of time to be considered will be the period from 1880- 
1912; from 1919-1931; from 1931 to 1941; from 1941-1960 and then the 
period from 1960 to 1998. Choosing these periods for study are not to 
exclude the impact of events or changes which may have occurred in 
other periods of time. Also in choosing a very few events, or items for 
discussion does not discount that other factors may have had some 
additional contributing influence on the development of Freemasonry in 
the Province of Ontario. If all things were considered, the paper would 
most likely continue until time shall be no more. 


During the last decade, our Grand Lodge told its membership that 
the square and compasses, our fraternity's internationally recognized 
symbol, was known by about 80% of the population of Ontarians in the 
period 1880-1912. In contrast, the Grand Lodge informs its membership 



that in the 1990s the same Masonic symbol is recognized by less than 
10% of the population. It seems incredible that such a situation is true; 
however in all probability it is. Consider what exposure the Masonic 
Order gets in the media today. It is virtually non-existent. R.W.Bro. 
Colin Heap in his paper 7?. W.Bro. Otto Klotz - The Times of His Life, has 
stated that Masonic lodges announced their meetings in the newspapers, 
and frequently tliose notices were published on the front page. It was a 
common practice for Masonic events to be published in the newspapers 
during these times. Think of the exposure the Masonic Order received as 
far as the general public was concerned. 

R. W.Bro. Balfour LeGresley pointed out in his paper, The First On- 
Sight Mason In Canada, that Masonic events were published during the 
1930s by tlie major papers of the day. Again Masonry was placed in full 
view of the general public, while at the same time providing an outline 
of our Order's aims and principles, as well as providing living examples 
of those tenets and principles from the society of the times . 

During the past forty years, the public exposure in the various news 
media, which the Masonic Order has had, has been very limited to the 
odd installation announcement, a donation to a worthy project such as 
assistance in purchasing some medical equipment, or more likely some 
yellow journalistic expose of the Order. The fact of the matter is that 
since 1960 the Masonic Order has become increasing reluctant to be seen 
in the public view at all, at least until our recent programs, such as 
Friend to Friend. Still however, the fraternity has taken a posture of not 
responding to criticisms, even when those criticisms are completely false. 
As a result, the Fraternity has become increasingly isolated from the 
general public, and thus even more unknown to the general public, 
enhancing the view that we are the secret society, which we are not, but 
which our critics successfully claim we are. The resulting bad press 
reflects in the Order's ability to promote the fundamental tenents and 
principals of the Craft to our society in general, and thereby diminishes 
our ability to attract new quality members from within its midst. 


From its inception the Masonic Order has been the advocate of 
religious tolerance in society and a protector of the belief in a Supreme 
Being, who has revealed himself to man and who pimishes vice and 
rewards virtue. These fundamental precepts have, and still are, integral 
to the fraternity's core. In 1 886 a lodge brought charges against a brother 
for being a person unfit to retain his connection with his lodge, or with 



the Masonic fraternity, upon the ground that he was an agnostic, a 
secularist, afreethinker, and being such, that he held religious views and 
opinions not consistent with the doctrines and principles of Freemasonry. 
At his Masonic trial, the lodge found him guilty and expelled him. He, 
in turn, appealed to the Board of General Purposes to have his suspension 
removed and to be restored to good standing in his lodge. The Board after 
due inquiries recommended his restoration to his lodge; however. Grand 
Lodge refiised to adopt the report and referred the question to the Grand 
Master, M. W.Bro. Hugh Murray, for fiuther enquiry and consideration. 
After M. W.Bro. Murray personally interviewed and examined the brother 
in depth, he concluded that although Masonry is tolerant about a man's 
belief in God, and that the Craft would not tolerate the prosecution of a 
brother for his religious opinion, there were certain Masonic Landmarks 
which cannot be changed, the most important being the belief in God, 
and the immortality of the soul. He, therefore, advised the Grand Lodge 
that the lodge's suspension of the brother would be not be overturned, 
and Grand Lodge confirmed his finding. 

This 1886 action by the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge clearly 
emphasized that a belief in God and the immortality of the soul were 
firmly established Landmarks of the Order. It also confirmed that in 
Freemasonry could be found men who held religious beliefs consistent 
with the society within which they were a part. This confirmation could 
not have occurred at a more opportime time, because, at this same time, 
a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the Province of Quebec 
wrote a proclamation to other catholic clerics openly attacking the 
Masonic Order for being a society of irreligious men, banded together 
under an organization and by horrible oaths, under the secret guidance 
of invisible leaders, for the purpose of making war upon the church and 
upon society, and for resuscitating paganism, under the specious pretext 
of establishing liberty, equality, and fraternity through the world. (GLH 

The tenets and principles regarding religious beliefs place in 
Freemasonry have not changed at the turn of the second millermium, they 
have remained significantly unchanged from our inception. Our ritual 
emphasizes our Fraternity's need for certain specific religious beliefs, 
when the first three questions asked of a candidate, before being granted 
admission into our Order, demand confirmation of his belief in a 
Supreme Being who has revealed Himself to man and punishes vice and 
rewards virtue. It is also interesting that although the Order continues to 
have critics from various religious fimdamentalists; the Order has many 



members of the Catholic faith in its midst, as well as frequently joining 
together with the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic fraternal order, in 
social events such as golf tournaments to raise funds for various charities, 
or ladies nights to enjoy an evening of mutual fun and friendship. The 
Order's continued afiFirmation for a need for religious tolerance is clearly 
one of the pillars of the Order's longevity. We demonstrate our beliefs in 
our own quiet way without flaunting it, or forcing those beliefs on the rest 
of society. It is however unfortunate that a greater segment of society do 
not understand our beliefs in religious tolerance and a Supreme Being. 
On this issue, the Masonic Order has remained steadfast in its beliefs, 
while society has become diverse and complex in its religious beliefs. It 
is this diversity wliich may make our Order the focus of unwanted 
attention from those religious groups who need a constant contrast to 
maintain their beliefs and the loyalty of their members. 


The years of 1885-1890, especially 1886, in some ways seems to be 
a period of significance for Masonry in several areas. An examination of 
many lodge minute books, especially the Junior Warden's account 
concerning the banquet hours, there were regular reports of alcoholic 
beverages, along with cigars, being purchased for almost each meeting. 
During this period alcohol was a regular part of life for many people, as 
it still is over one hundred years later. At this time temperance groups 
were somewhat active, but not to any great affect in society. It is 
interesting that at the Grand Lodge Communication in 1886 a Notice of 
Motion was put fortli which would mean that alcohol would be banned 
from lodge activities, except under dispensation from the Grand Master. 
When the motion was brought forth at the Grand Lodge Communication 
in 1887, it was soundly defeated by the membership. As time went by 
during the 1920s and 1930s alcoholic beverages were still readily 
available after Masonic lodge meetings and activities. It wasn't until the 
1960s that the Grand Lodge banned the use of alcohol during Masonic 
activities, unless dispensation had been previously received from the 
Grand Master. Once again our Fraternity became a leader for society. 
Because as the society began to see the dangers of alcohol, while driving 
an automobile, and in its extreme uses as a disease, social pressures on 
our governments brought forth laws governing the consumption of 
alcohol and driving, which dramatically changed society's approach to 
its use. The effects of these laws did in fact impact on some Masonic 
social activities. Some Lodges which regularly hosted dances and dinners 



found that these functions were no longer profitable because the bar did 
not generate the usual funds it once did and/or the attendance had 
declined significantly; so the lodge frequently discontinued this means, 
or similar means, to socialize. The result was that many lodges found 
themselves without a vehicle for socialization, or would not find an 
alternative means of socialization, amongst themselves; and therefore 
through neglect, or lack of imagination, the lodge's membership activity 
went into decline also. 


By the 1880s the Masonic Fraternity had been in existence 
throughout the world for several himdred years, and in the Province of 
Ontario for almost one hundred years. As an organization, it provided the 
brethren a social outlet and network which was the envy of many people 
during these times. There were few other organizations like the Masonic 
Order, which provided such a social network. As the general populations 
grew, and people became more politically involved in the social aspects 
of their communities and in the Province, other organizations came into 
being. Some organizations, such as the temperance, conservationist, 
labour movements, or feminist groups looking for the vote, were 
primarily political in nature; while others, such as the Order of the 
Mystic Shrine, Rotary, Order of the Eastern Star, Lions, and Kiwanis 
were service, or fratemalistic, groups seeking to provide a forum for their 
members to socialize and to render some service to their communities. 

Several of the service groups were also primarily limited to male 
membership during this period; however, during the 1970s and certainly 
later, it became increasingly politically correct for women who sought 
membership in these service groups to be admitted. The Masonic Order 
has not admitted women; and should not admit them into the Craft, 
because this Order is a fraternity. That does not mean that there was not 
a very great concern by many Masons that women may seek to gain 
membership in the Order. Was this one of the reasons that Grand Lodge 
refused to recognize the Eastern Star for so long a period. When the 
Eastern Star was gaining strength in the 1920s, M.W.Bro. W. N. Ponton 
decreed that it was unlawful for any member to become associated with 
any society that made Masonry a prerequisite, unless such society was 
expressly recognized by Grand Lodge. While the Shrine, York and 
Scottish rites, were recognized; the Eastern Star was not. This decree was 
reajffirmed by Grand Lodge in 1945. Now fifty years later, the situation 
has been changed for several years, the Eastern Star is recognized by the 



Grand Lodge and can hold its meetings in Craft buildings and the Lodge 
Room itself. From the 1920s to the 1980s, what would Grand Lodge and 
Masonry have to fear from a women's organization? Was this action by 
Grand Lodge a symptom of a greater fear of the feminist movements? 

These organizations developed throughout the first half of the 1 900s, 
to become significant bodies after the 1950s and began to seriously 
compete with the Masonic Order for members. This fact was commented 
on by M.W.Bro James N. Allen at a press conference give just prior to 
the 1966 Annual Communication. When asked how the Masonic Order 
would respond to the decline in membership over the past four years, he 
stated that we aren 't really worried about it It 's because of television 
and because of the competition from service clubs such asKiwanis and 
Rotary. He went on to continue that the lodge will never solicit 
membership, even if membership continues to fall off. (Toronto Star July 
1966). From his comment, it seems that M.W.Bro Allen was not very 
concerned with this recent decline in membership fi'om 136,413 to 
130,228 Masons in just six years. Undoubtedly he and other Masons of 
the time truly believed that the decline would soon stop and correct itself 
However, as has been demonstrated, this decline was only the beginning 
of a long and continuous decline in the membership of the Masonic 
Order in the Province of Ontario. 

The other period of decline was during the recession of the 1930s; 
however for the most part the decline in membership at this period was 
primarily as a result of poor economic conditions. Once the recession was 
over membership once again began to increase at a steady rate. 

Undoubtedly, the rise of the service clubs did attract some men who 
may have become Masons. However, the fraternity has many members 
who have been and are also members of service groups; so perhaps tliis 
factor was not as significant as was once thought. Perhaps there are some 
other reasons. 


The Masonic Order's greatest and most dramatic increases in 
membership came at the end of the First and Second World Wars usually 
in the seven- to ten-year period following these conflicts. There has not 
been a definitive study of the reasons men decided to join the Masonic 
Order at this particular point of their lives. After researching various 
sources, including speaking to many older members who joined after the 
Second World War, some interesting points came to light. Men returning 
from overseas had seen, or heard, about the Masonic Fraternity while in 



England; and realized that the Order may have something to offer them. 
Another contributing factor was that many men felt a need to have 
similar close bonds that had been formed with other comrades in arms. 
They also had a real abhorration of the war, and what mankind was 
capable of doing to each other; so in turn they wanted to find a place or 
group where they could find peace, harmony and brotherly love. They 
sought to be with other men who shared similar beliefs and experiences 
in life. The changes in lifestyles which occurred from the 1960s and 
aflerwards, must have been difficult for many of these men to accept. 
Faced with the prospect of some of these men who believed in the 
concepts of free love, living the lifestyle of a hippie, the use of drugs, or 
being a draft dodger, at some time seeking admission to the Craft, we can 
understand why Masons would seriously question admitting the younger 
generation to the Fraternity. Perhaps it would be better not to answer 
questions about the Fraternity, which might encourage them to ask 
questions about joining the Order. Was this one way in which the new 
social order influenced or elicited a response from the Masonic Social 

How many times have you sat in lodge watching the initiation of a 
new Mason, and having a few visitors who came to see their friend join 
the Craft, only to find out after the degree that the new Mason did not 
know that his backyard friends of 10 or 20 years were Masons until 
recenUy or perhaps that night. The even more surprising thing is that 
frequently we learn that the backyard Masons did not know that each 
other were members of the Craft. Why and how could this situation arise? 
Is this why we became known as a secret society? Certainly not as far as 
our opponents are concerned; but perhaps as far as some Masons may be 
concerned it was. 

For the sake of discussion, let us theorize that several social 
conditions occurred at approximately the same time period which 
solidified the general mind-set of members of the Masonic Order in the 
Province of Ontario, so that our reaction to the social changes which 
were occiuTing caused us to become so insulated, that we became almost 
invisible to the rest of society. First, in reaction to the changes in social 
lifestyles with which Masons generally may not have agreed, Masons did 
not actively inform or encourage men who enquired about the Order; in 
essence everything became a Masonic secret, not to be spoken about 
outside of the lodge. Secondly, with the increase in the activity of service 
clubs and their seeking media exposure for their service work; the 
Masonic Order, which does charitable works without normally seeking 



public recognition, became more isolated from the public view and 
perhaps more introverted; thereby keeping even more to themselves, even 
within the lodge, not to mention the district or grand jurisdiction. 
Thirdly, as M. W.Bro. James Allen confirmed in 1966, that the Fraternity 
would never solicit new members, even if our membership continued to 
decline, which it most certainly did as pointed out earlier. 

There is circimistantial evidence that this theory did take place. 
Because our Fraternity has become almost unknown to the general 
public, and in some sense even unknown to ourselves. As the numbers 
indicate during the period of 1960 to tlie present, the number of newly 
initiated brethren are about the same as the number of Masons who died 
annually. However, tlie most alarming statistics are that, during the same 
period, the number of brethren who resign from the Order, and who are 
suspended, are about equal in number to the number of new initiates. It 
appears that the Order became complacent, and did not take positive 
corrective action to retain members, until it was almost too late. It has 
taken almost thirty years of declining membership before Grand Lodge 
started to develop positive programmes to reclaim drifting brethren, or 
mentor new Masons through those critical three degrees and beyond to 
ensure that they too would not become lost, and just another statistic. 

The study of history is a study of society and societies, groups and 
individuals, and how tlieir actions, or lack of them, affected the past. It 
is generally hoped that by studying the past we may assist in the 
development of a better fixture. 

The motto on the banner of the coat of arms of The Heritage Lodge 
No. 730 is Light from the Past. 

By studying ourselves, and others in our society, 

perhaps we can effect changes for the good of 

society in general, and this Fraternity in particular. 



We have been notified of the following members of 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730G.R.C. 

Who have Passed to the Grand Lodge Above 

(since previous publication of names of our deceased) 

R.W.Bro. ALAN JOHN BELL, Windsor 

Great Western Lodge No. 47 G.R.C., Windsor 

November 17, 1999 

R.W.Bro. AAGE BJERKNESS, Campbellford 
Golden Rule Lodge No. 409 G.R.C., Gravenhurst 

December 25, 1999 


St. John's Lodge No. 17 G.R.C., Cobourg 

Octobers, 1999 

Pnyx Baldoon Lodge No. 312 G.R.C., Wallaceburg 

December 19, 1999 

We give thanks for the privilege of knowing them 
and sharing in their lives 



We have been notified of the fijllowing members of 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730 G.R.C. 

Who have Passed to the Grand Lodge Above 

(since previous publication of names of our deceased) 

R.W.Bro. JOHN STOREY, Toronto 

Han Yang Lodge No. 1048 S.C., China 

December 30, 1999 

North Star Lodge No. 322 G.R.C, Owen Sound 

November 19, 1999 

R.W.Bro. ROBERT C. WRIGHT, Wyoming 

Huron Lodge No. 392 G.R.C, Camlachie 

Decembers, 1999 

We give thanks for the privilege of knowing them 
and sharing in their lives 



1977-1978 Jacob Pos 

1979 Keith R. A. Flynn 

1980 Donald G. S. Grinton 

1981 Ronald E. Groshaw 

1982 George E. Zwicker 

1983 Balfour LeGresley 

1984 David C. Bradley 

1985 C. Edwin Drew 

1986 Robert S. Throop 

1987 Albert A. Barker 

1988 Edsel C. Steen* 

1989 Edmund V. Ralph 

1990 Donald B. Kaufman 

1991 Wilfred T. Greenhough' 

1992 Frank G. Dunn 

1 993 Stephen H. Maizels 

1994 David G. Fletcher 

1995 Kenneth L. Whiting 

1996 Larry J. Hostine 

1997 George A. Napper 

1998 Gordon L. Finbow 

1999 P. Raymond Borland 




Worshipful Master DONALD L. COSENS 


Senior Warden ..... WILLIAM C. THOMPSON 





Assistant Secretary GEORGE F. MOORE 

Senior Deacon CARL M. MILLER 

Junior Deacon JOHN H. HOUGH 

Director of Ceremonies . GORDON L. FINBOW 







Auditors: Kenneth G. Bartlett, M. Keith McLean 



Marketing / Liaskas Paintings / Chips Editor . Edmund V. Ralph 

Proceedings Editor John F. Sutheriand 

Masonic Information / W.J. Dunlop Award . Donald B. Kaufman 

Finance Albert A. Barker 

Black Creek Masonic Heritage E. J. Burns Anderson 

Masonic Heritage Corporation Robert S. Throop 

Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Committee C. Edwin Drew 


Western Ontario Arthur S. Rake 

Central Ontario Glenn H. Gilpin 

Eastern Ontario Leonard Harrison 

Toronto Districts John P. McLaughlin 

Niagara / Hamilton Districts E. Wanren Lay 

Ottawa/Eastern / St. Lawrence Districts Douglas Franklin 
Northern Ontario Districts Alex Gray